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Freedom In America Essay
Freedom In America Essay
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A critical analysis sometimes called a critique, critical summary, or book review. A critical analysis usually includes a summaryвЂ”a. Remember that no matter what format you follow in writing your critical analysis,. Your thesis statement will not be the same as the original author's thesis. See the reverse side for two serviceable if unembellished formats for. Also, remember that length can vary from a paragraph to several. His commentary relies onfallacies,. Therefore, even though Katz expresses much passion, he fails to offer a. The focus, then, is objective. The conclusion may restate the author's thesis, but the main purpose of the conclusion. One technique for integrating a summary and an evaluation is simply to merge the two. Another technique is to synthesize the summary and evaluative comments, as in the. Thus, the essay can pose some difficulties for. In addition, Tolkien's diction is formal and quite dense.. Crafting the Critical Analysis. Schedule a Tutoring Appointment. Schedule a Writing Appointment. University Focus Global Impact for the Next Century Diversity and Inclusion Sexual Misconduct Programs Connect with Webster University.
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The importance of education is emphasized by society. However, the role of improved schooling, a central part of most development strategies, has become controversial because expansion of school attainment has not guaranteed improved economic conditions. This paper reviews the role of education in promoting economic well-being, with a particular focus on the role of educational quality. It concludes that there is strong evidence that the cognitive skills of the population вЂ” rather than mere school attainment вЂ” are powerfully related to individual earnings, to the distribution of income, and to economic growth. New empirical results show the importance of both minimal and high level skills, the complementarity of skills and the quality of economic institutions, and the robustness of the relationship between skills and growth. International comparisons incorporating expanded data on cognitive skills reveal much larger skill deficits in developing countries than generally derived from just school enrollment and attainment. The magnitude of change needed makes clear that closing the economic gap with developed countries will require major structural changes in schooling institutions. Read this paper on the importance of education here. Education, as a discipline, is concerned with methods of teaching and learning in schools or school-like environments as opposed to various nonformal and informal means of socialization e. Education can be thought of as the transmission of the values and accumulated knowledge of a society. In this sense, it is equivalent to what social scientists term socialization or enculturation. ChildrenвЂ”whether conceived among New Guinea tribespeople, the Renaissance Florentines, or the middle classes of ManhattanвЂ”are born without culture. Education is designed to guide them in learning a culture, molding their behaviour in the ways of adulthood, and directing them toward their eventual role in society. In the most primitive cultures, there is often little formal learningвЂ”little of what one would ordinarily call school or classes or teachers. Instead, the entire environment and all activities are frequently viewed as school and classes, and many or all adults act as teachers. As societies grow more complex, however, the quantity of knowledge to be passed on from one generation to the next becomes more than any one person can know, and, hence, there must evolve more selective and efficient means of cultural transmission. The outcome is formal educationвЂ”the school and the specialist called the teacher. As society becomes ever more complex and schools become ever more institutionalized, educational experience becomes less directly related to daily life, less a matter of showing and learning in the context of the workaday world, and more abstracted from practice, more a matter of distilling, telling, and learning things out of context. This concentration of learning in a formal atmosphere allows children to learn far more of their culture than they are able to do by merely observing and imitating. As society gradually attaches more and more importance to education, it also tries to formulate the overall objectives, content, organization, and strategies of education. Literature becomes laden with advice on the rearing of the younger generation. In short, there develop philosophies and theories of education. This article discusses the history of education, tracing the evolution of the formal teaching of knowledge and skills from prehistoric and ancient times to the present, and considering the various philosophies that have inspired the resulting systems. Other aspects of education are treated in a number of articles. For an analysis of educational philosophy, see education, philosophy of. Some restrictions on educational freedom are discussed in censorship. Education in primitive and early civilized cultures The term education can be applied to primitive cultures only in the sense of enculturation, which is the process of cultural transmission. A primitive person, whose culture is the totality of his universe, has a relatively fixed sense of cultural continuity and timelessness. The model of life is relatively static and absolute, and it is transmitted from one generation to another with little deviation. As for prehistoric education, it can only be inferred from educational practices in surviving primitive cultures. The purpose of primitive education is thus to guide children to becoming good members of their tribe or band. There is a marked emphasis upon training for citizenship, because primitive people are highly concerned with the growth of individuals as tribal members and the thorough comprehension of their way of life during passage from prepuberty to postpuberty. Because of the variety in the countless thousands of primitive cultures, it is difficult to describe any standard and uniform characteristics of prepuberty education. Nevertheless, certain things are practiced commonly within cultures. Children actually participate in the social processes of adult activities, and their participatory learning is based upon what the American anthropologist Margaret Mead called empathy, identification, and imitation. Primitive children, before reaching puberty, learn by doing and observing basic technical practices. Their teachers are not strangers but rather their immediate community. In contrast to the spontaneous and rather unregulated imitations in prepuberty education, postpuberty education in some cultures is strictly standardized and regulated. The teaching personnel may consist of fully initiated men, often unknown to the initiate though they are his relatives in other clans. The initiation may begin with the initiate being abruptly separated from his familial group and sent to a secluded camp where he joins other initiates. Instead, it consists of a whole set of cultural values, tribal religion, myths, philosophy, history, rituals, and other knowledge. Primitive people in some cultures regard the body of knowledge constituting the initiation curriculum as most essential to their tribal membership. Within this essential curriculum, religious instruction takes the most prominent place. Although these civilizations differed, they shared monumental literary achievements. The need for the perpetuation of these highly developed civilizations made writing and formal education indispensable. Egyptian culture and education were preserved and controlled chiefly by the priests, a powerful intellectual elite in the Egyptian theocracy who also served as the political bulwarks by preventing cultural diversity. The humanities as well as such practical subjects as science, medicine, mathematics, and geometry were in the hands of the priests, who taught in formal schools. Vocational skills relating to such fields as architecture, engineering, and sculpture were generally transmitted outside the context of formal schooling. Egyptians developed two types of formal schools for privileged youth under the supervision of governmental officials and priests: one for scribes and the other for priest trainees. It is not clear whether or not the practical sciences constituted a part of the systematically organized curriculum of the temple college. Rigid method and severe discipline were applied to achieve uniformity in cultural transmission, since deviation from the traditional pattern of thought was strictly prohibited. Drill and memorization were the typical methods employed. But, as noted, Egyptians also used a work-study method in the final phase of the training for scribes. As a civilization contemporary with Egyptian civilization, Mesopotamia developed education quite similar to that of its counterpart with respect to its purpose and training. Formal education was practical and aimed to train scribes and priests. It was extended from basic reading, writing, and religion to higher learning in law, medicine, and astrology. Generally, youth of the upper classes were prepared to become scribes, who ranged from copyists to librarians and teachers. The schools for priests were said to be as numerous as temples. This indicates not only the thoroughness but also the supremacy of priestly education. Very little is known about higher education, but the advancement of the priestly work sheds light upon the extensive nature of intellectual pursuit. As in the case of Egypt, the priests in Mesopotamia dominated the intellectual and educational domain as well as the applied. The centre of intellectual activity and training was the library, which was usually housed in a temple under the supervision of influential priests. Methods of teaching and learning were memorization, oral repetition, copying models, and individual instruction. It is believed that the exact copying of scripts was the hardest and most strenuous and served as the test of excellence in learning. The period of education was long and rigorous, and discipline was harsh. In North China, the civilization of which began with the emergence of the Shang era, complex educational practices were in effect at a very early date. Chinese ancient formal education was distinguished by its markedly secular and moral character. Its paramount purpose was to develop a sense of moral sensitivity and duty toward people and the state. Even in the early civilizational stage, harmonious human relations, rituals, and music formed the curriculum. Local states probably had less-organized institutions, such as halls of study, village schools, and district schools. With regard to actual methods of education, ancient Chinese learned from bamboo books and obtained moral training and practice in rituals by word of mouth and example. Rigid rote learning, which typified later Chinese education, seems to have been rather condemned. Education was regarded as the process of individual development from within. The New World civilizations of the Maya, Aztecs, and Incas The outstanding cultural achievements of the pre-Columbian civilizations are often compared with those of Old World civilizations. It is unfortunate that archaeological findings and written documents hardly shed sufficient light upon education among the Maya, Aztecs, and Incas. But from available documents it is evident that these pre-Columbian civilizations developed formal education for training the nobility and priests. The major purposes of education were cultural conservation, vocational training, moral and character training, and control of cultural deviation. Being a highly religious culture, the Maya regarded the priesthood as one of the most influential factors in the development of their society. The priest enjoyed high prestige by virtue of his extensive knowledge, literate skills, and religious and moral leadership, and high priests served as major advisers of the rulers and the nobility. To obtain a priesthood, which was usually inherited from his father or another close relative, the trainee had to receive rigorous education in the school where priests taught history, writing, methods of divining, medicine, and the calendar system. Character training was one of the salient features of Mayan education. The inculcation of self-restraint, cooperative work, and moderation was highly emphasized in various stages of socialization as well as on various occasions of religious festivals. In order to develop self-discipline, the future priest endured a long period of continence and abstinence and, to develop a sense of loyalty to community, he engaged in group labour. Among the Aztecs, cultural preservation relied heavily upon oral transmission and rote memorization of important events, calendrical information, and religious knowledge. Priests and noble elders, who were called conservators, were in charge of education. Since one of the important responsibilities of the conservator was to censor new poems and songs, he took the greatest care in teaching poetry, particularly divine songs. The calmecac played the most vital role in ensuring oral transmission of history through oratory, poetry, and music, which were employed to make accurate memorization of events easier and to galvanize remembrance. Visual aids, such as simple graphic representations, were used to guide recitation phases, to sustain interest, and to increase comprehension of facts and dates. The Incas did not possess a written or recorded language as far as is known. Like the Aztecs, they also depended largely on oral transmission as a means of maintaining the preservation of their culture. Inca education was divided into two distinct categories: vocational education for common Incas and highly formalized training for the nobility. As the Inca empire was a theocratic, imperial government based upon agrarian collectivism, the rulers were concerned about the vocational training of men and women in collective agriculture. Personal freedom, life, and work were subservient to the community. Education for the nobility consisted of a four-year program that was clearly defined in terms of the curricula and rituals. In the first year the pupils learned Quechua, the language of the nobility. The second year was devoted to the study of religion and the third year to learning about the quipus, a complex system of knotted coloured strings or cords used for sending messages and recording historical events. In the fourth year major attention was given to the study of history, with additional instruction in sciences, geometry, geography, and astronomy. The instructors were highly respected encyclopaedic scholars known as amautas. After the completion of this education, the pupils were required to pass a series of rigorous examinations in order to attain full status in the life of the Inca nobility. India is the site of one of the most ancient civilizations in the world. It was of an all-absorbing interest and embraced not only prayer and worship but also philosophy, morality, law, and government as well. Religion saturated educational ideals too, and the study of Vedic literature was indispensable to higher castes. The stages of instruction were very well defined. During the first period, the child received elementary education at home. The beginning of secondary education and formal schooling was marked by a ritual known as the upanayana, or thread ceremony, which was restricted to boys only and was more or less compulsory for boys of the three higher castes. The acarya would treat him as his own child, give him free education, and not charge anything for his boarding and lodging. The pupil had to tend the sacrificial fires, do the household work of his preceptor, and look after his cattle. The character of education, however, differed according to the needs of the caste. For a child of the priestly class, there was a definite syllabus of studies. The trayi-vidya, or the knowledge of the three VedasвЂ”the most ancient of Hindu scripturesвЂ”was obligatory for him. During the whole course at school, as at college, the student had to observe brahmacharyaвЂ”that is, wearing simple dress, living on plain food, using a hard bed, and leading a celibate life. For those who wanted to continue their studies, there was no age limit. After finishing their education at an ashrama, they would join a higher centre of learning or a university presided over by a kulapati a founder of a school of thought. The method of instruction differed according to the nature of the subject. The first duty of the student was to memorize the particular Veda of his school, with special emphasis placed on correct pronunciation. In the study of such literary subjects as law, logic, rituals, and prosody, comprehension played a very important role. A third method was the use of parables, which were employed in the personal spiritual teaching relating to the Upanishads, or conclusion of the Vedas. Memorization, however, played the greatest role. Education became generally confined to the Brahmans, and the upanayana was being gradually discarded by the non-Brahmans. The formalism and exclusiveness of the Brahmanic system was largely responsible for the rise of two new religious orders, Buddhism and Jainism. Neither of them recognized the authority of the Vedas, and both challenged the exclusive claims of the Brahmans to priesthood. They taught through the common language of the people and gave education to all, irrespective of caste, creed, or sex. Buddhism also introduced the monastic system of education. Monasteries attached to Buddhist temples served the double purpose of imparting education and of training persons for priesthood. A monastery, however, educated only those who were its members. It did not admit day scholars and thus did not cater to the needs of the entire population. Meanwhile, significant developments were taking place in the political field that had repercussions on education. The Brahmans in large numbers gave up their ancient occupation of teaching in their forest retreats and took to all sorts of occupations, the Kshatriyas abandoned their ancient calling as warriors, and the Shudras, in their turn, rose from their servile occupations. These forces produced revolutionary changes in education. Schools were established in growing towns, and even day scholars were admitted. Studies were chosen freely and not according to caste. It did not possess any college or university in the modern sense of the term, but it was a great centre of learning with a number of famous teachers, each having a school of his own. After his death, Buddhism evoked resistance, and a counterreformation in Hinduism began in the country. As a result of these events, Buddhist monasteries began to undertake secular as well as religious education, and there began a large growth of popular elementary education along with secondary and higher learning. It was the age of the universities of Nalanda and Valabhi and of the rise of Indian sciences, mathematics, and astronomy. These covered the Vedas, logic, grammar, Buddhist and Hindu philosophy Sankhya, Nyaya, and so on , astronomy, and medicine. Other great centres of Buddhist learning of the post-Gupta era were Vikramashila, Odantapuri, and Jagaddala. The achievements in science were no less significant. He introduced the concepts of zero and decimals. Varahamihira of the Gupta age was a profound scholar of all the sciences and arts, from botany to astronomy and from military science to civil engineering. There was also considerable development of the medical sciences. According to contemporaries, more than eight branches of medical science, including surgery and pediatrics, were practiced by the physicians. Nearly every village had its schoolmaster, who was supported from local contributions. The Hindu schools of learning, known as pathasalas in western India and tol in Bengal, were conducted by Brahman acaryas at their residence. Larger or smaller establishments, specially endowed by rajas and other donors for the promotion of learning, also grew in number. There were also agrahara villages, which were given in charity to the colonies of learned Brahmans in order to enable them to discharge their scriptural duties, including teaching. Girls were usually educated at home, and vocational education was imparted through a system of apprenticeship. An account of Indian education during the ancient period would be incomplete without a discussion of the influence of Indian culture on Sri Lanka and Central and Southeast Asia. It was achieved partly through cultural or trade relations and partly through political influence. A number of Indian scholars lived there, and many Chinese pilgrims remained there instead of going to India. Indian pandits scholars were also invited to China and Tibet, and many Chinese and Tibetan monks studied in Buddhist viharas in India. The process of Indianization was at its highest in Southeast Asia. A greater India was thus established by a general fusion of cultures. Some of the inscriptions of these countries, written in flawless Sanskrit, show the influence of Indian culture. There are references to Indian philosophical ideas, legends, and myths and to Indian astronomical systems and measurements. Hinduism continued to wield its influence on these lands so long as the Hindus ruled in India. Ancient Chinese education served the needs of a simple agricultural society with the family as the basic social organization. Oral instruction and teaching by example were the chief methods of education. The molding of character was a primary aim of education. Ethical teachings stressed the importance of human relations and the family as the foundation of society. Filial piety, especially emphasizing respect for the elderly, was considered to be the most important virtue. It was the responsibility of government to provide instruction so that the talented would be able to enter government service and thus perpetuate the moral and ethical foundation of society. Schools for the common people were provided within the feudal states in villages and hamlets and were attended, according to written records, by men and women after their work in the fields. There were elementary and advanced schools for both the ruling classes and the common people. Separate studies for girls were concerned chiefly with homemaking and the feminine virtues that assured the stability of the family system. Mere memory work was condemned. The instability and the perplexing problems of the times challenged scholars to propose various remedies. The absence of central control facilitated independent and creative thinking. Some urged a return to the teachings of the sages of old, while others sought better conditions by radical change. No one school was in the ascendancy. Each major school had its followers and disciples, among whom there was a vigorous program of instruction and intellectual discussion. Most active in the establishment of private schools were Confucius and his disciples, but the Daoists, the Mohists, and the Legalists also maintained teaching institutions. Another form of educational activity was the practice of the contending feudal states of luring to their domain a large number of scholars, partly to serve as a source of ideas for enhancing the prosperity of the state and partly to gain an aura of intellectual respectability in a land where the respect for scholars had already become an established tradition. The age of political instability and social disintegration was, thus, an age of free and creative intellectual activity. Conscious of their importance and responsibility, the scholars developed a tradition of self-respect and fearless criticism. It was this tradition that Confucius had in mind when he said the educated person was not a utensil to be used, and it was this spirit the Confucian philosopher Mencius described when he said that the great man was a man of principles whom riches and position could not corrupt, whom poverty and lowliness could not swerve, whom power and force could not bend. The teachings of the Hundred Schools and the records of the feudal states meant a marked increase in literature and, consequently, in the materials for instruction. The classical age of China, the period of the Dong Zhou, left an intellectual and educational legacy of inestimable value. Its scholars propounded theories of government and of social and individual life that were as influential in China and East Asia as the Greek philosophers of almost contemporary age were in the Western world. The policies of the Qin dynasty were based on Legalist principles stressing a strong state with a centralized administration. Many of its policies were so different from past practices that they incurred the criticism of scholars, especially those who upheld the examples of the ancient sages. To stop the criticism, the rulerвЂ”who called himself the first emperorвЂ”acting upon the advice of a Legalist minister, decreed a clean break with the past and a banning of books on history and of classics glorifying past rulers. Numerous books were collected and burned, and hundreds of scholars were put to death. Though condemned for the burning of books and the persecution of scholars, the Qin dynasty laid the foundation for a unified empire and made it possible for the next dynasty to consolidate its power and position at home and abroad. In education, the unification efforts included a reform and simplification of the written script and the adoption of a standardized script intelligible throughout the country. First steps were taken toward uniform textbooks for the primary schools. The invention of the writing brush made of hair, as well as the making of ink, led to the replacement of the clumsy stylus and bamboo slips with writing on silk. The most important change was a shift from Legalism to Confucianism. The banned books were now highly regarded, and the classics became the core of education. An assiduous effort was made to recover the prohibited books and to discover books and manuscripts that scholars had concealed in secret places. Much painstaking work was done in copying and editing, and the textual and interpretative studies of the Han scholars accorded a new importance to the study of the classics. The making of paper further stimulated this revival of learning. Critical examination of old texts resulted in the practice of higher criticism long before it developed in the West. There were historians, philosophers, poets, artists, and other scholars of renown in the Han dynasty. A bibliographer collected and edited ancient texts and designated them as classics. The first dictionary of the Chinese language was written. Since the discovery and interpretation of ancient texts had largely been the work of Confucian scholars, Chinese scholarship from now on became increasingly identified with Confucianism. Most of the Han rulers gave official sanction to Confucianism as a basis of conducting government and state affairs. There was, however, no action to exclude other schools of thought. There were a variety of schools on the national and local levels. Increasing activity in private education continued, and much of the study of the classics and enriched literature was done in private schools. The classics now became the core of the curriculum, but music, rituals, and archery were still included. The tradition of all-round education in the six arts had not vanished. The Han dynasty was a period of territorial expansion and growth in trade and cultural relations. Buddhism was introduced at this time. Early information about Buddhism was probably brought into China by traders, envoys, and monks. Thereafter Indian missionaries as well as Chinese scholars translated Buddhist scriptures and other writings into Chinese. Indian missionaries not only preached a new faith but also brought in new cultural influences. Indian mathematics and astronomical ideas enriched Chinese knowledge in these fields. Chinese medicine also benefited. Architecture and art forms reflected Buddhist and Indian influence. Hindu chants became a part of Chinese music. For a couple of centuries after its introduction, however, Buddhism showed no signs of popular appeal. Han scholarship was engrossed in the study of ancient classics and was dominated by Confucian scholars who had scant interest in Buddhist teachings that were unconcerned with the practical issues of moral and political life. Daoist scholars, finding in Buddhism much that seemed not too remote from their own spiritual message, were more inclined to study the new philosophy. Some of them aided in the translation of Buddhist texts, but they were not in the centre of the Han stage. The fall of the Han dynasty was followed by a few hundred years of division, strife, and foreign invasions. It was during this period that Buddhism gained a foothold in China. The literary efforts of Chinese monks produced a Chinese Buddhist literature, and this marked the beginning of a process that transformed an alien importation into a Chinese religion and system of thought. This characteristic remained in Jewish education, for the relation of teacher to pupil was always expressed in terms of parenthood and filiation. Writing was at first practical: the scribe wrote letters and drew up contracts, kept accounts, maintained records, and prepared orders. The training given these scribes, moreover, included training of character and instilling the high ideal of wisdom, as would befit the servants of the king. Writing found another avenue of application in IsraelвЂ”in religion. And the scribe again was the agent of education. He was the man who copied the sacred Law faithfully and established the canonical text. Girls, however, continued to be taught at home. Although a pupil might learn to read aloud, or rather to intone his text, his main effort was to learn by heart fragment after fragment of the sacred Law. The diffusion of this religious literature called for an expansion of programs of instruction, evolving into diverse stages: elementary, intermediate, and advancedвЂ”the latter in several centres in Palestine and later in Babylonia. In their dispersion, the Jews clung to Hebrew, their only language for worship, for the study of the Law, for tradition, and consequently for instruction. From this evolved the respect with which the teacher was and is surrounded in Jewish communities. The Mycenaean civilization consisted of little monarchies of an Oriental type with an administration operated by a bureaucracy, and it seems to have operated an educational system designed for the training of scribes similar to those of the ancient civilizations of the Middle East. During this period, sons of the nobility received their education at the court of the prince in the setting of a guild companionship of warriors: the young nobleman was educated through the counsel and example of an older man to whom he had been entrusted or had entrusted himself, a senior admired and loved. It was in this atmosphere of virile camaraderie that there developed the characteristic ideal of Greek love that was enduringly to mark Hellenic civilization and to deeply influence its conception of education itselfвЂ”for example, in the relation of master to pupil. Dance, poetry, and instrumental music were well developed and provided an essential element in the educational formation of the dominant elites. It was an ethic of honour, which made virtues of pride and of jealousy the inspiration of great deeds and which accepted it as natural that one would be the object of jealousy or of enmity. Profound changes were introduced into Greek education as a result of the political transformations involved in the maturing of the city-state. This subordination of the individual exploit to collective discipline was reinforced by the strategic military revolution that saw the triumph of heavy infantry, the hoplites, foot soldiers heavily armed and in tight formation. The young men and women engaged in processions, dances, and competitions in instrumental music and song. But military and civic education dominated, as it was expected that the citizen-soldier be ready to fightвЂ”and, if necessary, to dieвЂ”for his country. Arts and sports gave way completely to an education appropriate to men of a warrior caste. Up to the age of seven, children were brought up by the women, already in an atmosphere of severity and harshness. The male youth of Sparta were enrolled into formations corresponding to successive age classes, divided into smaller units under the authority of comrades of their own age or of young officers. It was a collective education, which progressively removed them from the family and subjected them to garrison life. Everything was organized with a view to preparation for military service: lightly clothed, bedded on the bare ground, the child was poorly fed, told to steal to supplement his rations, and subjected to rigorous discipline. His virility and combativeness were developed by hardening him to blowsвЂ”thus the role of ritual brawls between groups of boys and of the institution of the krypteia, a nocturnal expedition designed both to terrify the lower classes of slaves helots and to train the future fighter in ambushes and the ruses of warfare. He was also, of course, directly apprenticed to the military craft, using arms and maneuvering in close formation. Curiously, the child was at the same time trained to dissimulation, to lying, to theftвЂ”all virtues when directed toward the foreigner, toward whom distrust and Machiavellianism were encouraged. Not that Sparta ever relaxed its tension: on the contrary, in the course of centuries, the rigour and ferocity were accentuated even as such behaviour became more and more anachronistic and without real use. Rites of initiation were transformed into barbarous tests of endurance, the boys undergoing flagellation and competing in enduring itвЂ”sometimes to the very deathвЂ”under the eyes of tourists attracted by the sadistic spectacle. This occurred in times of complete peace when, under the Roman Empire, Sparta was nothing but a little provincial city with neither independence nor army. The Athenian citizen, of course, was always obliged, when necessary and capable, to fight for the fatherland, but the civil aspect of life and culture was predominant: armed combat was only a sport. The evolution of Athenian education reflected that of the city itself, which was moving toward increasing democratizationвЂ”though it should be noted that the slave and the resident alien always remained excluded from the body politic. Athenian culture continued to be oriented toward the noble lifeвЂ”that of the Homeric knight, minus the warrior aspectвЂ”and this orientation determined the practice of elegant sports. Schools had begun to appear in those early centuries, probably on eastern Mediterranean models run by private teachers. The earliest references are, however, more recent. The elements of literacy were taught by the writing master, known as a grammatistes, the child learning his letters and numbers by scratching them on a wax-coated wooden tablet with a stylus. More advanced formal literacy, chiefly in a study of the poets, playwrights, and historians, was given by the grammatikos, although this was restricted to the genuinely leisured. Supremely important was instruction in the mythopoeic legends of Hesiod and Homer, given by the lyre-playing kitharistes. In addition, all boys had to be instructed in physical and military activities in the wrestling school, known as the palaestra, itself part of the more comprehensive institution of the gymnasium. The moral aspect of education was not neglected. A system of higher education open to allвЂ”to all, at any rate, who had the leisure and necessary moneyвЂ”emerged with the appearance of the Sophists, mostly foreign teachers who were contemporaries and adversaries of Socrates c. Until then the higher forms of culture had retained an esoteric character, being transmitted by the master to a few chosen disciplesвЂ”as in the first schools of medicine at Cnidus and at CosвЂ”or within the framework of a religious confraternity involving initiate status. The Sophists proposed to meet a new need that was generally felt in Greek societyвЂ”particularly in the most active cities, such as Athens, where political life had been intensively developed. The Sophists, who were professional educators, introduced a form of higher education whose commercial success attested to and was promoted by its social utility and practical efficacy. They inaugurated the literary genre of the public lecture, which was to experience a long popularity. It was a teaching process that was oriented in an entirely realistic direction, education for political participation. Two principal disciplines constituted the program: the art of logical argument, or dialectic, and the art of persuasive speaking, or rhetoricвЂ”the two most flourishing humanistic sciences of antiquity. These disciplines the Sophists founded by distilling from experience their general principles and logical structures, thus making possible their transmission on a theoretical basis from master to pupil. To the pedagogy of the Sophists there was opposed the activity of Socrates, who, as inheritor of the earlier aristocratic tradition, was alarmed by this radical utilitarianism. He doubted that virtue could be taughtвЂ”especially for money, a degrading substance. An heir of the old sages of former times, Socrates held that the supreme ideal of man, and hence of education, was not the spirit of efficiency and power but the disinterested search for the absolute, for virtueвЂ”in short, for knowledge and understanding. This was the result of the joint and rival efforts of two great educators: the philosopher Plato c. The indictment and execution of Socrates by what Plato considered an ignorant society turned him away from Athens and public life. The select band of scholars who gathered there engaged in philosophical disputations in preparation for their role as leaders. Good government, Plato believed, would only come from an educated society in which kings are philosophers and philosophers are kings. Basically, it was built around the study of dialectic the skill of accurate verbal reasoning , the proper pursuit of which, he believed, enables misconceptions and confusions to be stripped away and the nature of underlying truth to be established. The ultimate educational quest, as revealed in the dialogues, is the search for the GoodвЂ”that is, the ultimate idea that binds together all earthly existence. Furthermore, the visible realm itself is subdivided into two: the realm of appearances and that of beliefs. Plato maintained that only those individuals who survive this program are really fit for the highest offices of the state and capable of being entrusted with the noblest of all tasks, those of maintaining and dispensing justice. The rival school of Isocrates was much more down-to-earth and practical. In contrast to Plato, Isocrates sought to develop the quality of grace, cleverness, or finesse rather than the spirit of geometry. The program of study that he enjoined upon his pupils was more literary than scientific. In addition to gymnastics and music, its basics included the study of the Homeric classics and an extensive study of rhetoricвЂ”consisting of five or six years of theory, analysis of the great classics, imitation of the classics, and finally practical exercises. Isocrates did promote elementary mathematics as a kind of mental training or mental gymnastics and did allow for a smattering of philosophy to illumine broad questions of human life. Plato, for his part, recognized the usefulness of the literary art and philosophical rhetoric. Before leaving the Hellenic period, there is one other great figure to appraiseвЂ”one who was a bridge to the next age, since he was the tutor of the young prince who became Alexander the Great of Macedonia. The last book of his Politics opens with these words: No one will doubt that the legislator should direct his attention above all to the education of youth. His worldliness also led him to be less concerned with the search for ideas, in the Platonic mode, and more concerned with the observation of specific things. His urge for logical structure and classification, for systematization, was especially strong. In his first phase, from birth to age seven, he was to be physically developed, learning how to endure hardship. From age seven to puberty his curriculum would include the fundamentals of gymnastics, music, reading, writing, and enumeration. Finally, in young manhood, only a few superior students would continue into higher education, developing encyclopaedic and intensely intellectual interests in the biological and physical sciences, ethics, and rhetoric, as well as philosophy. This civilization of the Hellenistic Age has been defined as a civilization of paideiaвЂ”which eventually denoted the condition of a person achieving enlightened, mature self-fulfillment but which originally signified education per se. To be sure, this entire program was completed only by a minority, recruited from the rich aristocratic and urban bourgeois classes. The students were mostly boys girls occupied only a very modest place , and of course they were usually free citizens masters, though some slaves were given a professional education occasionally reaching a high level. As in the preceding era, education continued to be dependent upon the city, which remained the primary frame of Greek life. To facilitate control of his empire, Alexander had commenced the process of founding a network of cities or communities organized and administered in the Greek manner. It relied upon the cities to assume responsibility for public services, that of education in particular. Many schools were private, the role of the city being limited to inspections and to the organization of athletic and musical competitions and festivals. The Hellenistic school par excellence was still the school of gymnastics, the practice of athletic sports and the nudity that they required being the most characteristic feature contrasting the Greek way of life with that of the barbarians. There were, at least in sufficiently large cities, several gymnasiums, separately for the different age classes and on occasion for the sexes. They were essentially palaestrae, or open-air, square-shaped sports grounds surrounded by colonnades in which were set up the necessary services: cloakrooms, washstands, training rooms, massage rooms, and classrooms. Outside there was a track for footraces, the stadion. The foundation of the training always consisted of the sports properly called gymnastic and field. Horsemanship remained an aristocratic privilege. Nautical sports had a very modest roleвЂ”a curious thing for a nation of sailors, but the fact is the Greeks were by origin Indo-Europeans from the interior of the Eurasian continent. The other sportsвЂ”ball games and hockeyвЂ”were considered merely diversions or at best preparatory exercises. As the competition of professional sports grew, however, education based on sports progressivelyвЂ”though no doubt very slowlyвЂ”lost its preeminent position. There was a similar progressive decline, a similar final effacement, of artisticвЂ”particularly musicalвЂ”education, the other survivor from the Archaic period. The art of music continued to flourish, but like sports it became the concern of professional practitioners and a feature of public spectacles rather than an art generally practiced in cultivated circles. Literacy and numeration were taught in the private school conducted by the grammatistes. Class sizes varied considerably, from a few pupils to perhaps dozens. The teaching of reading involved an analytical method that made the process very slow. First the alphabet was taught from alpha to omega and then backward, then from both ends at once: alphaвЂ”omega, betaвЂ”psi, and so on to muвЂ”nu. A comparable progression in the Latin alphabet would be AвЂ”Z, BвЂ”Y, and so on to MвЂ”N. Then were taught simple syllablesвЂ”ba, be, bi, boвЂ”followed by more complex ones and then by words, successively of one, two, and three syllables. The vocabulary list included rare words e. It took several years for the child to be able to read connected texts, which were anthologies of famous passages. With reading was associated recitation and, of course, practice in writing, which followed the same gradual plan. The general use of tokens and of the abacus made the teaching of methods of computation less necessary than it became in the modern world. The program of the enkyklios paideia was limited to the common points on which, as noted earlier, the rival pedagogies of Plato and of Isocrates agreedвЂ”namely, the study of literature and mathematics. Specialized teachers taught each of these subjects. The mathematics program had not changed since the ancient Pythagoreans and comprised four disciplinesвЂ”arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and harmonics not the art of music but the theory of the numerical laws regulating intervals and rhythm. The primary function of the grammatikos, or professor of letters, was to present and explicate the great classic authors: Homer first of all, of whom every cultivated man was expected to have a deep knowledge, and Euripides and MenanderвЂ”the other poets being scarcely known except through anthologies. Although poetry remained the basis of literary culture, room was made for proseвЂ”for the great historians, for the orators Demosthenes in particular , even for the philosophers. Along with these explications of texts, the students were introduced to exercises in literary composition of a very elementary character for example, summarizing a story in a few lines. The program then consisted of the seven liberal arts: the three literary arts of grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic and the four mathematical disciplines noted above. Of the four mathematical disciplines, only one remained in favourвЂ”astronomy. Higher education appeared in several forms, complementary or competitive. Military training came to play only a modest role and gave way to athletic competition. To this were added lectures on scientific and literary subjects, assuring the ephebe a polish of general culture. The same evolution took place in other cities: the ephebeia became everywhere more aristocratic than civic, more sporting than military. What the Greeks, especially those who had emigrated to the barbarian lands, demanded of it was above all that it initiate their sons into Greek life and its characteristic customs, beginning with athletic sports. In any event, the ephebeia no longer was the setting for the highest forms of education. Formal education in science also lacked any institutionalization. If the scholars endowed there were also teachers, this meant only that they dispensed instruction to a small circle of chosen disciples. Philosophy and rhetoric were subjects of education most highly institutionalized. Although philosophy was taught privately by individual masters-lecturersвЂ”who could be either itinerants or residents of one placeвЂ”these teachers were well organized and, in groups, possessed a kind of institutional character. The central problem was henceforth that of wisdomвЂ”of the purpose that man should set for himself in order to attain happiness, the supreme ideal. The teaching of philosophy was not entirely contemplative: it involved the disciple in an experience analogous to a religious conversion, a decision implying a revision of his life and the adoption of a generally ascetic way of life. The reigning discipline was always rhetoric. Legal eloquence maintained its function, and the profession of advocate retained its attractiveness, but it was above all the eloquence of showy set speechesвЂ”the art of the lecturerвЂ”that experienced a curious blossoming. Even the astronomer and the physician became lecturers. Hence, great importance was attached to the teaching of rhetoric, which developed from century to century with an ever more rigorous technicalism, precision, and systematization. Action was the art of self-presentation, the regulation of voice and delivery and above all the art of reinforcing the word with the expressive power of gesture. Each of these parts, equally systematized to the tiniest detail, was taught with a technical vocabulary of extreme precision. Even in the time of Plato and Isocrates, this rivalry did not proceed without mutual concessions and reciprocal influences, but it remained one of the most constant characteristics of the Classical tradition and continued until the end of antiquity and beyond. Under the later Roman Empire, AlexandriaвЂ”already famous for medicineвЂ”competed with Athens for preeminence in philosophy. Other great centres developed: Beirut, Antioch, and the new capital Constantinople. Rome and Roman civilization were then dominated by a rural aristocracy of landed proprietors directly engaged in exploiting their lands, even after the establishment of the republic. The interests of the state constituted the supreme law. The ideal set before youth was not that of the chivalrous hero in the Homeric manner but that of the great men of history who, in difficult situations, had by their courage and their wisdom saved the fatherland when it was in danger. A nation of small farmers, Rome was also a nation of soldiers. Physical education was oriented not toward self-realization or competitive sport but toward military preparedness: training in arms, toughening of the body, swimming across cold and rapid streams, and horsemanship, involving such performances as mounted acrobatics and cavalry parades under arms. Differing from the Greeks, the Romans considered the family the natural milieu in which the child should grow up and be educated. The role of the mother as educator extended beyond the early years and often had lifelong influence. The young Roman noble accompanied his father as a kind of young page in all his appearances, even within the Senate. Then came military serviceвЂ”first as a simple soldier it was well for the future leader to learn first to obey , encountering his first opportunity to distinguish himself by courage in battle, but soon thereafter as a staff officer under some distinguished commander. Civil and military, the education of the young Roman was thus completed in the entourage of some high personage whom he regarded with respect and veneration, without ceasing, however, to gravitate toward the family orbit. The young Roman was brought up not only to respect the national tradition embodied in the example of the illustrious men of the past but also very specifically to respect the particular traditions of his own family, which also had its great men and which jealously transmitted a stereotype, a specific attitude toward life. It assimilated, with a remarkable faculty for adaptation, the structures and techniques of the much further evolved Hellenistic civilization. The Romans quickly appreciated the advantages they could draw from this more mature civilization, richer than their own national culture. The practical Romans grasped the advantages to be drawn from a knowledge of GreekвЂ”an international language known to many of their adversaries, soon to be their Oriental subjectsвЂ”and grasped the related importance of mastering the art of oratory so highly developed by the Greeks. The Roman aristocrats quickly understood what a weapon rhetoric could be for a statesman. Rome doubly adopted Hellenistic education. Naturally, only the children of the ruling class had the privilege of receiving the complete and bilingual education. In following the normal course of studies, the young Roman was taught next by an instructor of Greek letters grammatikos and then by a Greek rhetorician. Those desiring more complete training did not content themselves with the numerous and often highly qualified Greeks to be found in Rome but went to Greece to participate in the higher studies of the Greeks themselves. The adoption of Hellenistic education did not proceed, however, without a certain adaptation to the Latin temperament: the Romans showed a marked reserve toward Greek athleticism, which shocked both their morals and their sense of the deep seriousness of life. There was the same reserve, on grounds of moral seriousness, toward music and danceвЂ”arts suitable for professional performers but not for freeborn young men and least of all for young aristocrats. The musical arts indeed became integrated into Latin culture as elements of the life of luxury and refinement but as spectacle rather than as amateur participationвЂ”hence their disappearance from programs of education. It must be remembered, however, that athletics and music were in Greece itself survivals of archaic education and had already entered upon a process of decline. This education in a foreign language was paralleled by a course of studies exactly patterned upon those of the Greek schools but transposed into the Latin language. The Romans took their alphabet from the Etruscans, who had taken theirs from the Greeks, who had taken theirs from the Phoenicians. The early Romans quite naturally copied the pedagogy of the Hellenistic world: the same ignorance of psychology, the same strict and brutal discipline, the same analytical method characterized by slow progressвЂ”the alphabet forward, backward, from both ends toward the middle , the syllabary, isolated words, then short sentences one-line moral maxims , finally continuous textsвЂ”the same method for writing, and the same numeration, rather than computation. Since the principal object of this education was the explication of poetry, its rise was hindered by the slowness with which Latin literature developed. Thereafter, and until the end of antiquity, the program was not to undergo further change, the principal authors being first of all Virgil, the comic author Terence, the historian Sallust, and the unchallenged master of prose, Cicero. Theoretically, the curriculum remained that of the seven liberal arts, but, as in Greece, it practically neglected the study of the sciences in favour of that of letters. It was not until the end of the century and the appearance of the works of Cicero that this education would be revived and become normal practice. More than in Greece, legal eloquence continued to flourish Quintilian had in mind particularly the training of future advocates , butвЂ”as in the Hellenic milieuвЂ”Latin culture became predominantly aesthetic: from the beginning of the empire, the public lecture was the most fashionable literary genre, and the teaching of rhetoric was very naturally oriented toward the art of the lecturer as the crowning achievement. Because the oratorical art was incontestably the most popular subject of higher education, the Romans did not feel the same urgency to Latinize the other rival branches of knowledge, which interested only a small number of specialists with unusual vocations. To be sure, the philosophical work of Cicero had the same ambition as his oratorical work and proved by its existence that it was possible to philosophize in Latin, but philosophy found no successors to Cicero as rhetoric did. There was never a Latin school for philosophy. On the other hand, Rome created in the school of law another type of higher educationвЂ”the only one that had no equivalent in Hellenistic education. The position of law in Roman life and civilization is, of course, well known. Roman law was thus promoted to the rank of a scientific discipline. It was at this same time that legal education acquired its definitive tools, with the composition of systematic elementary treatises such as the Institutiones of Gaius, manuals of procedure, commentaries on the law, and systematic collections of jurisprudence. The works of the great legal authors of this time, which became classics, were offered by the law professor with much interpretation and explicationвЂ”very similar to the way in which grammarians offered literature. Rome, the capital, remained the great centre of this advanced study in law. In effect, it was always the city that was responsible for education. The liberal central government of the high empire, anxious to reduce its administrative apparatus to a minimum, made no pretense of assuming charge of it. It was content to encourage education and to favour teaching careers by fiscal exemptions, and only very exceptionally did an emperor create certain chairs of higher education and assign them a regular stipend. The dominant fact is the extraordinary continuity of the methods of Roman education throughout such a long succession of centuries. At most, a few nuances of change need be noted. There was a measure of increasing intervention by the central government, but this was primarily to remind the municipalities of their educational duties, to fix the remuneration of teachers, and to supervise their selection. Another innovation was that the exuberant growth of the bureaucratic apparatus under the later empire favoured the rise of one branch of technical education, that of stenography. The only evolution of any notable extent involves the use of Greek and Latin. There had never been more than a few Greeks who learned Latin, even though the growing machinery of administration and the increasing clientele drawn to the law schools of Beirut and Constantinople tended to increase the numerical size of this tiny minority. On the other hand, in Latin territory, late antiquity exhibited a general recession in the use of Greek. Although the ideal remained unchanged and high culture always proposed to be bilingual, most people generally knew Greek less and less well. This retrogression need not be interpreted solely as a phenomenon of decadence: it had also a positive aspect, being an effect of the development of Latin culture itself. The richness and worth of the Latin classics explain why the youth of the West had less time than formerly to devote to the study of the Greek authors. Virgil and Cicero had replaced Homer and Demosthenes, just as in modern Europe the ancient languages have retreated before the progress of the national languages and literatures. Hence, in the later empire there appeared specialists in intercultural relations and translations from Greek into Latin. Nothing better demonstrates the prestige and the allure of Classical culture than the attitude taken toward it by the Christians. This new religion could have organized an original system of education analogous to that of the rabbinical schoolвЂ”that is, one in which children learned through study of the Holy ScripturesвЂ”but it did not do so. Usually, Christians were content to have both their special religious education provided by the church and the family and their Classical instruction received in the schools and shared with the pagans. Thus, they maintained the tradition of the empire after it had become Christian. From Tertullian to St. With the passage of time and the general conversion of Roman society and particularly of its ruling class, Christianity, overcoming its reserve, completely assimilated and took over Classical education. These elements developed in the Persians an adventurous personality mingled with intense national feelings. Three principles sustained Zoroastrian ethics: the development of good thoughts, of good words, and of good actions. Achaemenian Zoroastrian education stressed strong family ties and community feelings, acceptance of imperial authority, religious indoctrination, and military discipline. Education was a private enterprise. Formative education was carried on in the home and continued after the age of seven in court schools for children of the upper classes. Secondary and higher education included training in law to prepare for government service, as well as medicine, arithmetic, geography, music, and astronomy. There were also special military schools. Zoroastrian ethics, though more advanced than during the Achaemenian period, emphasized similar moral principles but with new stress upon the necessity for labour particularly agriculture , upon the sanctity of marriage and family devotion, and upon the cultivation of respect for law and of intellectualismвЂ”all giving to education a strong moral, social, and national foundation. The subject matter of basic education included physical and military exercises, reading Pahlavi alphabet , writing on wooden tablets , arithmetic, and the fine arts. There were three stages of education. Speaking style was deemed more important than content or original thinking. An optional fourth stage was provided by the teacher of philosophy, who introduced pupils to some of the topics of ancient philosophy, often by reading and discussing works of Plato or Aristotle. Rhetoric and philosophy formed the main content of higher education. Secondary education was confined to the larger cities. Monasteries sometimes had schools in which young novices were educated, but they did not teach lay pupils. Girls did not normally attend schools, but the daughters of the upper classes were often educated by private tutors. Elementary-school pupils were taught to read and write individual letters first, then syllables, and finally short texts, often passages from the Psalms. They probably also learned simple arithmetic at this stage. Teachers had a humble social status and depended on the fees paid by parents for their livelihood. They usually held classes in their own homes or on church porches but were sometimes employed as private tutors by wealthy households. They had no assistants and used no textbooks. Teaching methods emphasized memorization and copying exercises, reinforced by rewards and punishments. The secondary-school teacher taught the grammar and vocabulary of Classical and ecclesiastical Greek literature from the Hellenistic and Roman periods and explained the elements of Classical mythology and history that were necessary for the study of a limited selection of ancient Greek texts, mainly poetry, beginning with Homer. These were specially written by a teacher to illustrate points of grammar or style. Secondary schools often had more than one teacher, and the older pupils were often expected to help teach their juniors. Schools of this kind had little institutional continuity, however. The most lasting schools were those conducted in churches. Many Byzantine handbooks of rhetoric survive from all periods. There is little innovation in the theory of rhetoric they expound. After studying models, pupils went on to compose and deliver speeches on various general topics. All philosophical teaching in the Byzantine world was concerned with the explanation of texts rather than with the analysis of problems. Because higher education provided learned and articulate personnel for the sophisticated bureaucracies of state and church, it was often supported and controlled officially, although private education always existed as well. Teaching of such professional subjects as medicine, law, and architecture was largely a matter of apprenticeship, although at various times there was some imperially supported or institutionalized teaching. Studious reading of works by the Church Fathers was the principal path to theological knowledge in Byzantium, both for clergy and for laymen. But within this limitation it preserved the literature, science, and philosophy of Classical Greece in recopied texts, some of which escaped the plunders of the Crusaders and were carried to southern Italy, restoring Greek learning there. Combined with the treasures of Classical learning that reached Europe through the Muslims, this Byzantine heritage helped to initiate the beginnings of the European Renaissance. It is sometimes less strictly employed, howeverвЂ”as in this sectionвЂ”to refer to that area from ancient times as well. It is, however, highly dubious to claim that this event, which established Christianity as the predominant cultural force in the Kievan state, also marked the beginning of an institutionalized system of education. The next epoch in Russian history is known as the appanage period. It was characterized by the appearance of numerous autonomous fiefdoms and a population shift from southern plains to northern forests, brought about in large part by attacks from steppe nomads. Although the church and monasteries continued to acquire wealth and property, anarchic decentralization was not conducive to the development of any kind of widespread, uniform educational apparatus. Mongol rule had a debilitating effect on all phases of Russian culture, including the church, which became more formalistic and ritualistic. What little can be learned about education at this time must be culled from later biographies of contemporary saints. It is not clear who served as teachers, how many there were, where they taught, or how many and what kind of pupils they had. Because students uttered their assignments simultaneously, the result was often chaotic. By the time the Mongol rule came to an end, the welter of independent Russian principalities had been united under the authority of the Grand Principality of Moscow, which began a successful program of territorial expansion. Controversies over religious issues, particularly the respective roles of church and state, flared up but failed to bring about any real improvement in education. The council heard many stories of clerical ignorance and licentiousness, and its deliberations made it clear that no effective system or institution existed to educate the clergy, the key class in the cultural establishment. It is misleading to think of education solely in institutional terms, however. Another system existed in early Russia: the highly developed family system, within which from generation to generation parents handed on to their children skills and knowledge. Indeed, the very strength and tenacity of the family unit may well have retarded development of a more formal educational structure. It is necessary to bear in mind that Kiev and much of western Ukraine had for centuries been under the control of the Roman Catholic Polish-Lithuanian state, where intellectual achievement and fermentвЂ”especially during the Renaissance and ReformationвЂ”had been considerably greater than in Muscovite Russia. The people of Ukraine were determined to preserve Orthodoxy from Roman Catholic pressure, which grew intense when the Jesuits employed their excellent schools as one means to spearhead the Counter-Reformation. Different Orthodox groups responded to the challenge by forming schools at many levels, culminating in the foundation of the Kievan Academy by Peter Mogila, the energetic metropolitan of Kiev, who strove to adapt Western educational techniques to defend Orthodoxy. It should be noted, however, that, although these schools adopted portions of the broader Western curriculum, their goal continued to be what it always had been: the inculcation of traditional religious values. They arrived under the auspices of Patriarch Nikon, who was then engaged in correcting what he saw as errors in Orthodox church books, but their appearance aroused deep suspicion on the part of the Orthodox establishment, many of whose members displayed little interest in or sympathy for the establishment of schools, an undertaking the newcomers considered to be of primary importance. Educational reforms nevertheless continued, albeit slowly. Religion was deemphasized as Peter strove to establish at least a few institutions that would provide graduates trained in practical subjects for government and military service. Church schools were brought under state control, and the Academy of Sciences was established. The Greco-Byzantine heritage of learning that was preserved through the medium of Middle Eastern scholarship was combined with elements of Persian and Indian thought and taken over and enriched by the Muslims. These translations included works by Plato and Aristotle, Hippocrates, Galen, Dioscorides, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Ptolemy, and others. Islam placed a high value on education, and, as the faith spread among diverse peoples, education became an important channel through which to create a universal and cohesive social order. Greek knowledge was studied in private, if at all, and the literary arts diminished in significance as educational policies encouraging academic freedom and new learning were replaced by a closed system characterized by an intolerance toward scientific innovations, secular subjects, and creative scholarship. The system of education in the Muslim world was unintegrated and undifferentiated. All the schools taught essentially the same subjects. The more advanced a student, the closer he was seated to the teacher. The mosque circles varied in approach, course content, size, and quality of teaching, but the method of instruction usually emphasized lectures and memorization. Teachers were, as a rule, looked upon as masters of scholarship, and their lectures were meticulously recorded in notebooks. Students often made long journeys to join the circle of a great teacher. Elementary schools maktab, or kuttab , in which pupils learned to read and write, date to the pre-Islamic period in the Arab world. After the advent of Islam, these schools developed into centres for instruction in elementary Islamic subjects. Some schools also included in their curriculum the study of poetry, elementary arithmetic, penmanship, ethics manners , and elementary grammar. Maktabs were quite common in almost every town or village in the Middle East, Africa, Sicily, and Spain. Schools conducted in royal palaces taught not only the curriculum of the maktabs but also social and cultural studies designed to prepare the pupil for higher education, for service in the government of the caliphs, or for polite society. The exact content of the curriculum was specified by the ruler, but oratory, history, tradition, formal ethics, poetry, and the art of good conversation were often included. Instruction usually continued long after the pupils had passed elementary age. Scholars and students spent many hours in these bookshop schools browsing, examining, and studying available books or purchasing favourite selections for their private libraries. Book dealers traveled to famous bookstores in search of rare manuscripts for purchase and resale to collectors and scholars and thus contributed to the spread of learning. Fundamental to Muslim education though the circle schools, the maktabs, and the palace schools were, they embodied definite educational limitations. Most importantly, these schools could not meet the growing need for trained personnel or provide sufficient educational opportunities for those who wished to continue their studies. These pressures led to the creation of a new type of school, the madrasa, which became the crown and glory of medieval Muslim education. The differences between these two institutions are still being studied, but most scholars believe that the masjid was also a place of worship and that, unlike the madrasa, its endowment supported only the faculty and not the students as well. A third type of college, the meshed shrine college , was usually a madrasa built next to a pilgrimage centre. Whatever their particularities, all three types of college specialized in legal instruction, each turning out experts in one of the four schools of Sunni, or orthodox, Islamic law. The contribution of these institutions to the advancement of knowledge was vast. In the area of chemistry, Muslim scholarship led to the discovery of such substances as potash, alcohol, nitrate of silver, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and mercury chloride. It also developed to a high degree of perfection the arts of textiles, ceramics, and metallurgy. This latter period, the golden age of Islamic scholarship, was largely a period of translation and interpretation of Classical thoughts and their adaptation to Islamic theology and philosophy. The period also witnessed the introduction and assimilation of Hellenistic, Persian, and Hindu mathematics, astronomy, algebra, trigonometry, and medicine into Muslim culture. There followed a period of modification and significant additions to Classical culture through Muslim scholarship. These translations were instrumental in bringing about the early phases of the European intellectual awakening, which coincided with the decline of Muslim scholarship. Initially, Christianity found most of its adherents among the poor and illiterate, making little headwayвЂ”as St. These individuals naturally wanted their children to have at least as good an education as they themselves had, but the only schools available were the grammar and rhetoric schools with their Greco-Roman, non-Christian culture. There were different opinions among Christian leaders about the right attitude to this dilemma that confronted all Christians who sought a good education for their children. The Greek FathersвЂ”especially the Christian Platonists Clement of Alexandria and OrigenвЂ”sought to prove that the Christian view of the universe was compatible with Greek thought and even regarded Christianity as the culmination of philosophy, to which the way must be sought through liberal studies. Without a liberal education, the Christian could live a life of faith and obedience but could not expect to attain an intellectual understanding of the mysteries of the faith or expect to appreciate the significance of the Gospel as the meeting ground of Hellenism and Judaism. Basil also tolerated the use of the secular schools by Christians, maintaining that literary and rhetorical culture is valuable so long as it is kept subservient to the Christian life. The Roman theologian Tertullian, on the other hand, was suspicious of pagan culture, but he admitted the necessity though deploring it of making use of the educational facilities available. Christians also set up catechetical schools for the religious instruction of adults who wished to be baptized. Of these schools, the most famous was the one at Alexandria in Egypt, which had a succession of outstanding heads, including Clement and Origen. Under their scholarly guidance, it developed a much wider curriculum than was usual in catechetical schools, including the best in Greek science and philosophy in addition to Christian studies. Other schools modeled on that at Alexandria developed in some parts of the Middle East, notably in Syria, and continued for some time after the collapse of the empire in the west. The position of the emperor remained, the barbarians exercising local control through smaller kingdoms. Roman learning continued, and there were notable examples in the writings of BoethiusвЂ”chiefly his Consolation of Philosophy. Boethius composed most of these studies while acting as director of civil administration under the Ostrogoths. Equally famous was his contemporary Cassiodorus c. As in previous centuries, the culture bestowed was essentially literary and oratorical: grammar and rhetoric constituted the basis of the studies. The pupils read, reread, and commented on the Classical authors and imitated them by composing certain kinds of exercises dictiones with the aim of achieving a perfect mastery of their style. In fact, however, the practice was desultory, and the results were mechanical and poor. Greek was ignored more and more, and attempts to revive Hellenic studies were limited to a dwindling number of scholars. The rule developed by Benedict to guide monastic life stimulated many other foundations, and one result was the rapid spread of Benedictine monasteries and the establishment of an order. The Benedictine monasteries became the chief centres of learning and the source of the many literate scribes needed for the civil administration. The monastic schools, however, are no more significant in the history of education than the schools founded by bishops, usually in connection with a cathedral. These episcopal schools are sometimes looked upon as successors of the grammar schools of the Roman Empire. First specializing in the development of the clergy, they later admitted young laypeople when the small Roman schools had disappeared. At the same time, there were bishops who organized a kind of boarding school where the aspiring clergyman, living in a community, participated in duties of a monastic character and learned his clerical trade. The influence of monasticism affected the content of instruction and the method of presenting it. The teacher must know and teach the doctrine, reprimand the undisciplined, and adapt his method to the different temperaments of the young monks. The education of young girls destined for monastic life was similar: the mistress of the novices recommended prayer, manual work, and study. The Christian Bible was more and more considered as the only source of moral lifeвЂ”as the mirror in which humans must learn to see themselves. The mother of Didier of Cahors addressed to her son letters of edification on the fear of God, on the horror of vice, and on penitence. The Christian education of children who were not aristocrats or future clergymen or monks was irregular. His parents and godparents assisted him in learning the minimum, if anything at all. Only by attending church services and listening to sermons did the child acquire his religious culture. They were followed by a number of other native scholars, who also founded collegesвЂ”the most famous and greatest university being the one at Clonmacnois, on the River Shannon near Athlone. To these and lesser schools flocked Anglo-Saxons, Gauls, Scots, and Teutons from Britain and the Continent. Although the very earliest Irish scholars may have aimed primarily at propagating the Christian faith, their successors soon began studying and teaching the Greek and Roman classics but only in Latin versions , along with Christian theology. Eventually there were additions of mathematics, nature study, rhetoric, poetry, grammar, and astronomyвЂ”all studied, it seems, very largely through the medium of the Irish language. England was next to experience the reawakening, and, though there were notable schools at such places as Canterbury and Winchester, it was in Northumbria that the schools flourished most. At the monasteries of Jarrow and Wearmouth and at the Cathedral School of York, some of the greatest of early medieval writers and schoolmasters appeared, including the Venerable Bede and Alcuin. He thus ordered that the clergy be educated severely, whether by persuasion or under compulsion. His promotion of ecclesiastical and educational reform bore fruit in a generation of churchmen whose morals and whose education were of a higher standard than before. The possibility then arose of providing, for the brighter young clerics and perhaps also for a few laymen, a more advanced religious and academic training. In order to develop and staff other centres of culture and learning, Charlemagne imported considerable foreign talent. Thus, Alcuin, who had been the master of the school at York, and other English scholars were brought over to transplant to the Continent the studies and disciplines of the Anglo-Saxon schools. Irish scholars also arrived. Recognizing the importance of manuscripts in the cultural revival, Charlemagne formed a library the catalog of which is still extant , had texts and books copied and recopied, and bade every school to maintain a scriptorium. Outside the court at Aachen were to be found here and there a few seats of cultureвЂ”but not many. It was necessary to wait for the second generation, or even the third, to witness the greatest brilliance of the Carolingian renewal. Unfortunately, the breakup of the Carolingian empire, following local rebellions and the Viking invasions, ended the progress of the Carolingian renaissance. Influences of the Carolingian renaissance abroad In EnglandвЂ”at least in the kingdom of WessexвЂ”King Alfred the Great stands out as another royal patron of learning, one who wanted to imitate the creativity of Charlemagne. He was grieved to find so few who could understand Latin church services or translate a letter from Latin into English. To accomplish an improvement, he called upon monks from the Continent, particularly those of Saint-Bertin. Moreover, he attracted to his court certain English clergy and young sons of nobles. Since the latter did not know Latin, he had translated into Wessex English some works of Pope Gregory the Great, Boethius, the theologian and historian Paulus Orosius, Venerable Bede, St. In order to facilitate the learning of Latin for young monks, Aelfric composed a grammar, glossary, and colloquy, containing a Latin grammar described in Anglo-Saxon, or Old English, a glossary in which master and pupil could find a methodically classified Latin vocabulary names of birds, fish, plants, and so forth , and a manual of conversation, inspired by the bilingual manuals of antiquity. Among the other SaxonsвЂ”those of the Continent who presided over the destinies of GermanyвЂ”there were also significant gatherings of masters and students at selected monasteries, such as Corvey and Gandersheim. Thus, when Gerbert of Aurillac, after a course of instruction in Catalonia, came to teach dialectic and the arts of the quadrivium geometry, arithmetic, harmonics, and astronomy at Reims, he aroused astonishment and admiration. His renown helped in his later election as Pope Sylvester II. A new stage in the history of teaching was beginning. Already the image of the courtly and Christian knight was beginning to take shape. It was not a question of governing a state well but, rather, of governing oneself. Alcuin became indignant when he heard it said that the reading of the Gospel was the duty of the clergy and not that of the layman. In the libraries of the laity, the volumes of the Old Testament and New Testament took first place, along with prayer books, a kind of breviary designed for day-to-day use. If a minority of aristocrats could receive a suitable moral and religious education, the masses remained illiterate and preferred a military apprenticeship to study. Writers of hagiographic texts were fond of contrasting the mother of the future saint, anxious to give education to her son, and the father, who wanted to harden his son at an early age to the chase or to war. The Carolingian tradition, however, was not totally forgotten by princes and others in high places. In Germany, Otto I and his successors, who wished to re-create the Carolingian empire, encouraged studies at the court: Wipo, the preceptor of Henry III, set out a program of education for the laity in his Proverbia. Rediscovering the ancient moralists, chiefly Cicero and Seneca, he praised moderation as opposed to warlike brutality or even the ascetic strength of the monks. The same tendency is found in other writings. Soon, contact with the EastвЂ”by trade and in the CrusadesвЂ”and with the highly cultivated Moors in Spain further stimulated intellectual life. Arabic renderings of some of the works of Aristotle, together with commentaries, were translated into Latin, exercising a profound influence on the trend of culture. It was inevitable that the world of education would take on a new appearance. In the first place, the monastic reformers made the decision to close their schools to those who did not intend to enter upon a cloistered life. According to their idea of solitude and sanctity, recalling the words of St. In the Carthusian monastery, the four steps of required spiritual exercise were reading, meditation, prayer, and contemplation. The rich libraries of the monasteries served only a few scholarly abbots, while the monks searched for God through prayer and asceticism. In the cities, on the contrary, the schools offered to all the clergy who so desired the means of satisfying their intellectual appetite. More and more of them attended these schools, for the studies were a good means of social advancement or material profit. The development of royal and municipal administrations offered the clergy new occupations. Hence the success of the schools for notaries and the schools of law. These schools were organized under the protection of the collegiate churches and the cathedrals. The schools for secular subjects were directed by an archdeacon, chancellor, cantor, or cleric who had received the title of scholasticus, caput scholae, or magister scholarum and who was assisted by one or more auxiliary masters. Only those who were provided with the licencia docendi conferred by the bishopвЂ”or, more often, by the scholasticusвЂ”could teach. Those who were licensed taught within the limits of the city or the diocese, whose clerical leaders supervised this monopoly and intervened if a cleric set himself up as master without having the right. Philosophy had four branches: theoretical, practical, logical, and mechanical. The logical, which concerned discourse, consisted of the three arts of the trivium. Finally, the mechanical included the work of processing wool, of navigation, of agriculture, of medicine, and so on. This was an ambitious humanistic program. In fact, the students became specialized in the study of one art or another according to their tastes or the presence of a renowned master, such as Guillaume de Champeaux at Paris and St. It may be noted that Bernard de Chartres organized his literary teaching in this fashion: grammatical explanations declinatio , studies of authors, and each morning the correction of the exercises given the day before. The third art of the trivium, logic or dialectics , was nevertheless a strong competitor of the other two, grammar and rhetoric. While dialectic reigned in Paris, the masters at Chartres offered a study of the whole of the quadrivium. The works of Euclid, Ptolemy, Hippocrates, Galen, and other Hellenic and Hellenistic scholars, as preserved in the Arabic manuscripts, were translated in southern Italy, Sicily, and Spain and were gradually transmitted northward. The scientific revival allowed the Chartrians to Christianize Greek cosmology, to explain Genesis according to physics, and to rediscover nature. Another revival was that of law. In the long view, the greatest educational and philosophical influence of the age was St. In his teaching at the University of Paris and in his writingsвЂ”particularly the Summa theologiae and the Summa contra gentilesвЂ”Aquinas tried to synthesize reason and faith, philosophy and theology, university and monastery, and activity and contemplation. In his writings, however, faith and theology ultimately took precedence over reason and philosophy because the former were presumed to give access to truths that were not available through rational inquiry. Hence, Aquinas started with assumptions based on divine revelation and went on to a philosophical explication of man and nature. The model of the educated man that emerged from this process was the Scholastic, whose rational intelligence had been vigorously disciplined for the pursuit of moral excellence and whose highest happiness was found in contemplation of the Christian God. The Scholastic model greatly affected the development of Western education, especially in fostering the notion of intellectual discipline. Although Aquinas made an important place in his hierarchy of values for the practical uses of reason, later Thomists were often more exclusively intellectual in their educational emphasis. The Middle Ages were thus beset by a multiplicity of ideas, both homegrown and imported from abroad. The multiplicity of students and masters, their rivalries, and the conflicts in which they opposed the religious and civil authorities obliged the world of education to reorganize. To understand the reorganization, one must review the various stages of development in the coming together of students and masters. The first stage, already alluded to, occurred when the bishop or some other authority began to accord to other masters permission to open schools other than the episcopal school in the neighbourhood of his church. A further stage was reached when a license to teach, the jus ubique docendiвЂ”granted only after a formal examinationвЂ”empowered a master to carry on his vocation at any similar centre. A further development came when it began to be recognized that, without a license from pope, emperor, or king, no school could be formed possessing the right of conferring degrees, which originally meant nothing more than licenses to teach. In practice, a doctor of Paris or Bologna would be allowed to teach anywhere and those great schools began to be known as studia generaliaвЂ”that is, places resorted to by scholars from all parts. Eventually the term came to have a more definite and technical significance. From this time, the notion began to prevail that the essence of the studium generale was the privilege of conferring a universally valid teaching license and that no new studium could acquire that position without a papal or imperial bull. A few Spanish universities founded by royal charter were held to be studia generalia for the kingdom. The word universitas originally applied only to the scholastic guild or guilds вЂ”that is, the corporation of students and mastersвЂ”within the studium, and it was always modified, as universitas magistrorum, or universitas scholarium, or universitas magistrorum et scholarium. The earliest studia arose out of efforts to provide instruction beyond the range of the cathedral and monastic schools for the education of priests and monks. It remained a medical school only. The secular character of this new study and its close connection with the claims and prerogatives of the Western emperor aroused papal suspicion, and for a time Bologna and its students were regarded by the church with distrust. The students found their first real protector in the emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. The immunities and privileges he conferred eventually extended to all the other universities of Italy. As the number of students increased, the number of universitates, or societies of scholars, increased, each representing the national origin of its members France, England, Provence, Spain, Italy. These confederations were presided over by a common head, the rector scholarium, and the different nations were represented by their consiliarii, a deliberative assembly with which the rector habitually took counsel. The practice at Bologna was adopted as other studia generalia arose. The students at Bologna were mostly of mature years. Because civil law and canon law were, at first, the only branches of study offered, the class they attracted was often composed of lawyers already filling office in some department of the church or stateвЂ”archdeacons, heads of schools, canons of cathedrals, and like functionaries. The former was developed by a succession of able teachers, among whom Thaddeus Alderottus was especially eminent. The masters formed themselves into collegia that is, organizations , chiefly for the conferment of degrees. Almost all the schools taught civil or canon law or both. Of these institutions the most important were Padua, Piacenza, Pavia, Rome, Perugia, Pisa, Florence, Siena, and Turin. The history of the University of Paris well illustrates the fact that the universities arose in response to new needs. With papal support, Paris became the great transalpine centre of orthodox theological teaching. The rector in the first instance head of the faculty of arts eventually became the head of the collective university. After the close of the Middle Ages, Paris came to be virtually reduced to a federation of colleges, though at Paris the colleges were less independent of university authority than was often the case elsewhere. Frideswide and of Oseney Abbey, are supposed to have been the nucleus around which it grew. Halls, or places of licensed residence for students, also began to be established. Against periodic vicissitudes, such as student dispersions and plagues, the foundation of colleges proved the most effective remedy. The University of Cambridge, although it came into existence somewhat later than Oxford, may reasonably be held to have had its origin in the same century. Giles crossed the River Cam and took up their residence in the new priory in Barnwell, and their work of instruction acquired additional importance. Their interest in and influence at these three centres were consequently proportionately great. The traditional constitution of the English universities was in its origin an imitation of the Parisian, modified by the absence of the cathedral chancellor. But the feature that most served to give permanence and cohesion to the entire community at Cambridge was, as at Oxford, the institution of colleges. All the early colleges were expressly designed for the benefit of the secular clergy. Spain was also an important scene of developments in higher education. The College of St. Bartholomew, the earliest founded at Salamanca, was noted for its ancient library and valuable collection of manuscripts. General characteristics of medieval universities Generally speaking, the medieval universities were conservative. Alexander Hegius and Rodolphus Agricola carried on their work as reformers at places such as Deventer in the Netherlands, remote from university influences. At almost every university, the realists and nominalists represented two great parties occupied with an internecine struggle. In Italian universities such controversies were considered endless and their effects pernicious. It was resolved, accordingly, to expel logic and allow its place to be filled by rhetoric, thereby effecting that important revolution in academic studies that constituted a new era in university learning and largely helped to pave the way for the Renaissance. The professorial body in the great Italian universities attained an almost unrivaled reputation throughout Europe. For each subject of importance there were always twoвЂ”and sometimes threeвЂ”rival chairs. While other universities became sectarian and local, those of Italy continued to be universal, and foreigners of all nations could be found among the professors. The material life of the students was difficult. In order to aid the poorest, some colleges founded by clerical or lay benefactors offered board and lodging to a number of foundationers. Courses, too, could occasionally be difficult. Many students preferred the more rapid and more lucrative paths of law and medicine. Others led the life of perpetual students, vagabond clerics, or disputatious goliardsвЂ”the objects of repeated but ineffectual condemnation. The methods of teaching are particularly well known in the case of Paris. The university year was divided into two terms: from St. The courses consisted of lectures collatio but more often of explications of texts lectio. There were also discussions and question periods. Examinations were given at the end of each term. The founding of universities was naturally accompanied by a corresponding increase in schools of various kinds. In most parts of western Europe, there were soon grammar schools of some type available for boys. Not only were there grammar schools at cathedrals and collegiate churches, but many others were founded in connection with chantries and craft and merchant guilds and a few in connection with hospitals. Solicitude at the centre for the advancement of education did not, however, result in centralized administration. It was the duty of bishops to carry out approved policy, but it was left to them to administer it, and they in turn allowed schools a large measure of autonomy. This device was used to ensure that all teachers were loyal to the doctrines of the church. Knowledge of the teaching provided in the grammar schools at this period is too slight to justify an attempt at a description. No doubt the curriculum varied, but religion was all-important, with Latin as a written and spoken language the other major element in the timetable. There might have been instruction in reading and writing in the vernacular but, in addition to the grammar schools, there were writing and song schools and other schools of an elementary type. The evidence of accounts, bills, inventories, and the like suggests that there was some careful teaching of writing and of an arithmetic that covered the practical calculations required in ordinary life. Educational provision for girls in medieval society was much more restricted. There were, however, provisions for boys of the artisan class to receive sufficient vernacular schooling to enable them to be apprenticed to various trades under the auspices of the guilds. There was an entirely different training for boys of high rank, and this created a cultural cleavage. Instead of attending the grammar school and proceeding to a university, these boys served as pages and then as squires in the halls and castles of the nobility, there receiving prolonged instruction in chivalry. The training was designed to fit the noble youth to become a worthy knight, a just and prudent master, and a sensible manager of an estate. Much of this knowledge was gained from daily experience in the household, but, in addition, the page received direct instruction in reading and writing, courtly pastimes such as chess and playing the lute, singing and making verses, the rules and usages of courtesy, and the knightly conception of duty. As a squire, he practiced more assiduously the knightly exercises of war and peace and acquired useful experience in leadership by managing large and small bodies of men. Education in Asian civilizations: c. The original Muslim rule was replaced successively by that of the Muslim Pashtuns and Mughals. Muslim educational institutions were of two typesвЂ”a maktab, or elementary school, and a madrasa, or institution of higher learning. The content of education imparted in these schools was not the same throughout the country. Later on, the scope of the curriculum was widened, and such subjects as history, economics, mathematics, astronomy, and even medicine and agriculture were added. Generally, not all the subjects were taught in every institution. Selected madrasas imparted postgraduate instruction, and a number of townsвЂ”Agra, Badaun, Bidar, Gulbarga, Delhi, Jaunpur, and a few othersвЂ”developed into university centres to which students flocked for study under renowned scholars. The sultans and amirs of Delhi and the Muslim rulers and nobles in the provinces also extended patronage to Persian scholars who came from other parts of Asia under the pressure of Mongol inroads. Indian languages also received some attention. The Muslim rulers of Bengal, for example, engaged scholars to translate the Hindu classics the Ramayana and the Mahabharata into Bengali. The rulers generally tolerated Sanskrit and vernacular schools already in existence but neither helped the existing ones financially nor built new ones. At early stages, the maktabs and madrasas were attended by Muslims only. Later, when Hindus were allowed into high administrative positions, Hindu children began to receive Persian education in Muslim schools. He treated all his subjects alike and opened a large number of schools and colleges for Muslims as well as for Hindus throughout his empire. The scope of the curriculum was so widened as to enable every student to receive education according to his religion and views of life. The adoption of Persian as the court language gave further encouragement to the Hindus and the Muslims to study Persian. After his death, the glory of the Mughal empire began gradually to vanish, and the whole country was overrun by warlords. During the Mughal period, girls received their education at home or in the house of some teacher living in close proximity. There were special arrangements for the education of the ladies of the royal household, and some of the princesses were distinguished scholars. Muslim rulers of India were also great patrons of literature and gave considerable impetus to its development. Akbar ordered various Hindu classics and histories translated into Persian. In addition, a number of Greek and Arabic works were translated into Persian. Literary activities did not entirely cease even in the troubled days of later rulers. Such is the history of Muslim education in India. There were, however, several distinctive features of Muslim education. First, education was democratized. As in mosques, so in a maktab or madrasa all were equal, and the principle was established that the poor should also be educated. Second, Muslim rule influenced the system of elementary education of the Hindus, which had to accommodate itself to changed circumstances by adopting a new method of teaching and by using textbooks full of Persian terms and references to Muslim usages. Third, the Muslim period brought in many cultural influences from abroad. The courses of studies were both widened and brought under a humanistic influence. Finally, Muslim rule produced a cross-cultural influence in the country through the establishment of an educational system in which Hindus and Muslims could study side by side and in which there would be compulsory education in Persian, cultivation of Sanskrit and Hindi, and translation of great classics of literature into different languages. Ultimately, it led to the development of a common medium of expression, Urdu. Education in the Muslim era was not a concerted and planned activity but a voluntary and spontaneous growth. There was no separate administration of education, and state aid was sporadic and unsteady. Education was supported by charitable endowments and by lavish provision for the students in a madrasa or in a monastery. The Muslim system, however, proved ultimately harmful. The Indian teachers were reduced to dependence on their own resources, and a hardening tradition that became increasingly unreceptive to new ideas reduced the whole process to mere routine. It was an age in which Buddhist scholarship won recognition and respect for its originality and high intellectual quality and in which China superseded India as the land from which Buddhism was to spread to other countries in East Asia. The Tang was known for its literature and art and has been called the golden age of Chinese poetry. There were thousands of poets of note who left a cultural legacy unsurpassed in subsequent periods and even in other lands. Prose writers also flourished, as did artists whose paintings reflected the influences of Buddhism and Daoism. Printing met the demand created by the increase in the output of literature and by the regularized civil service examination system. It also met the popular demand for Buddhist and Daoist prayers and charms. A national academic examination system was firmly established, and officials were selected on the basis of civil service examinations. But Confucianism did not dominate to the extent of excluding other schools of thought and scholarship. Renowned scholars were known to spurn public office because they were not satisfied with a narrow interpretation of Confucianism. Artists and poets were, in general, rebellious against traditional Confucianism. It was devoted to the study of Buddhism and Daoism and occult subjects that transcended the practical affairs of government and society. Such schools were often carried on by the private effort of scholars who served as tutors for interested followers. The schools of Tang were well organized and systematized. There were schools under the central government, others under local management, and private schools of different kinds. Public schools were maintained in each prefecture, district, town, and village. There was also a medical school. Semiprivate schools formed by famous scholars gave lectures and tutelage to students numbering in the hundreds. Students from Korea and Japan came to study in China and took back the lunar calendar and the Buddhist sects, as well as the examination system and the Confucian theories of government and social life. Chinese culture also penetrated Indochina. Examinations were held on different levels, and for each a corresponding academic degree was specified. An academy of scholars later known as the Hanlin Academy was established for select scholars whom the emperor could call upon for advice and expert opinion on various subjects. Membership in this institution became the highest honour that could be conferred upon those who passed the jinshi degree with distinction. To be appointed a Hanlin scholar was to be recognized as one of the top scholars of the land. Among the services that they rendered were the administration and supervision of examinations and the explanation of difficult texts in literature, classics, and philosophy. Examinations were given for students of medicine and for military degrees. The study of medicine included acupuncture and massage, as well as the treatment of general diseases of the body and those of eye, ear, throat, and teeth. The Song was another dynasty of cultural brilliance. Landscape painting approached perfection, and cultural achievement was stimulated by the invention of movable type first made of earthenware, then of wood and metal. The rulers of Song were receptive to new ideas and innovative policies. The controversy was only a phase of a deeper and more far-reaching intellectual debate that made the philosophical contributions of the Song scholars as significant as those of the Hundred Schools in the Zhou dynasty over a millennium earlier. Confucianism and the dominant mode of Chinese thinking had been subject to the challenge of ideas from legalism, Daoism, and Buddhism, and, despite the resistance of conservatives, the traditional views had to be modified. Outstanding Confucian scholars of conservative bent argued vigorously with aggressive proponents of new concepts of man, of knowledge, and of the universe. The result was Neo-Confucianism, or what some prefer to call rational philosophy. The most eminent Neo-Confucianist was Zhu Xi, a Confucian scholar who had studied Daoism and Buddhism. His genius lay in his ability to synthesize ideas from a fresh point of view. Song scholars distinguished themselves in other fields, too. A volume on architecture was produced that is still used today as a basic reference work, and a treatise on botany contained the most ancient record of varieties of citrus fruits then known in China. No less worthy of mention is an encyclopaedia titled Taiping yulan. The general pattern of the school system remained essentially the same, with provision for lower schools, higher schools, and technical schools, but there was a broadening of the curriculum. A noteworthy development was the rise of a semiprivate institution known as the shuyuan, or academy. With financial support coming from both state grants and private contributions, these academies were managed by noted scholars of the day and attracted many students and lecturers. Often located in mountain retreats or in the woods, they symbolized the influence of Daoism and Buddhism and a desire to pursue quiet study far away from possible government interference. The Mongols were ferocious fighters but inept administrators. Distrustful of the Chinese, they enlisted the services of many nationalities and employed non-Chinese aliens. To facilitate the employment of these aliens, the civil service examinations were suspended for a number of years. Later, when a modified form of examinations was in effect, there were special examinations for Mongol candidates to make sure of their admission into high offices. The Mongols despised the Chinese and placed many limitations on them. Consequently, an aftermath of Mongol rule was a strong antiforeign reaction on the part of the Chinese, accompanied by an overanxious desire to preserve the Chinese heritage. Despite the setback in Chinese culture under Mongol rule, the period was not devoid of positive cultural development. The increase in foreign contacts as a result of travel to and from China brought new ideas and new knowledge of other lands and other peoples. Mathematics and medicine were further influenced by new ideas from abroad. The classics were translated into the Mongol language, and the Mongol language was taught in schools. Private schools and the academies of the Song dynasty became more popular. As a result of a decrease in opportunities for government appointment, scholars withdrew into the provinces for study and tutoring. Relieved of the pressure of preparing for the examinations, they applied their talents to the less formal but more popular arts and literary forms, including the drama and the novel. Instead of the classical form, they used the vernacular, or the spoken, language. The Ming dynasty restored Chinese rule. Ming was famous for its ceramics and architecture. There were excellent painters too, but they were at best the disciples of the Tang and Song masters. The outstanding intellectual contribution of the period was the novel, whose development was spurred by increases in literacy and in the demand for reading materials. Ming novels are today recognized as masterpieces of popular vernacular literature. The examination system remained basically the same. In the early period of the dynasty, the schools were systematized and regularized. In the latter part of the dynasty, however, the increasing importance of the examination system relegated the schools to a secondary position. The decline of the state-supported schools stimulated the further growth of private education. Under Emperors Kangxi and Qianlong, learning flourished, but there was little originality. The alien Manchu rulers concentrated on the preservation of what seemed best for stability and the maintenance of the status quo. They wanted new editions of classical and literary works, not creative contributions to scholarship. Distrust of the Chinese by the Manchus and a feeling of insecurity caused the conquerors to erect barriers between themselves and the Chinese. The discriminatory policy was expressed in the administration of the examinations. The Chinese thus faced the keenest competition in the examinations, and those who passed tended to be brilliant intellects, whereas the Manchus could be assured of success without great effort. Schools were encouraged and regulated during the early period of the dynasty. The public school system consisted of schools for nobles, national schools, and provincial schools. Separate schools were maintained for the Manchus, and for their benefit Chinese books were translated into the Manchu language. Village and charitable schools were supported by public funds, but they were neglected in later years so that, by the end of the dynasty, private schools and tutoring had overshadowed them. At the threshold of the modern era, China had sunk into political weakness and intellectual stagnation. The creativity and originality that had brightened previous periods of history were now absent. Examinations dominated the educational scene, and the content of the examinations was largely literary and classical. Daoism and Buddhism had lost their intellectual vigour, and Confucianism became the unchallenged model of scholarship. Much could be said for the Chinese examination system at its best. It was instrumental in establishing an intellectual aristocracy whereby the nation could be sure of a cultural unity by entrusting government to scholars reared in a common tradition, nurtured in a common cultural heritage, and dedicated to common ideals of political and social life. It established a tradition of government by civilians and by scholars. It made the scholars the most highly esteemed people of the land. The examinations provided an open road to fame and position. There were no rigid prerequisites and no age limits for taking the examinations. Selection was rigorous, but the examinations were on the whole administered with fairness. The names of the candidates did not appear on the examination papers, and the candidates were not permitted to have any outside contacts while writing them. Nevertheless, the system had serious drawbacks. The content of the examinations became more and more limited in scope. The Confucianist classics constituted the core, and a narrow and rigid interpretation prevailed. Modern science and technology were completely neglected. This conservatism was accentuated under Manchu rule and resulted in sterility and stagnation. The creativity and original spirit of classical education was lost. People sustained themselves by engaging in agriculture, hunting, and fishing, and the chief problem of education was how to convey the knowledge of these activities and provide instruction in the skills useful for these occupations. The influence of the civilizations of China and India had a profound effect on both the spiritual life and the education of the Japanese. Buddhism was also an important intellectual and spiritual influence. The subsequent Taika Great Reform era saw the beginning of many new institutions, most of which were primarily imitations of institutions of the Tang dynasty of China. Their chief aim was to train government officials. The kuge lived an artistic life, so that the emphasis of education came to be placed on poetry, music, and calligraphy. The warrior constantly had to practice military arts, hardening his body and training his will. Education was based on military training, and a culture characteristic of warriors began to flourish. Some emphasis, though, was placed on spiritual instruction. The warrior society, founded on firm masterвЂ”servant relations and centring on the philosophy of Japanese family structure, set the highest value on family reputation and on genealogies. Furthermore, because the military arts proved insufficient to enable warriors to grasp political power and thereby maintain their ruling position, there arose a philosophy of bumbu-kembi, which asserted the desirability of being proficient in both literary and military arts. Thus, the children of warriors attended temples and rigorously trained their minds and wills. Reading and writing were the main subjects. Temples were the centres of culture and learning and can be said to have been equivalent to universities, in that they provided a meeting place for scholars and students. Education in the temple, originally aimed at instructing novitiates, gradually changed its character, eventually providing education for children not destined to be monks. Thus, the temples functioned as institutions of primary education. This era, though also dominated by warriors, differed from former ones in that internal disturbances finally ended and long-enduring peace ensued. Schools for commoners thus were established. Representative of such schools were the terakoya temple schools , deriving from the earlier education in the temple. As time passed, some terakoya used parts of private homes as classrooms. Designed to be one of the private schools, or shijuku, the terakoya developed rapidly in the latter half of the Tokugawa era, flourishing in most towns and villages. Toward the end of the era they assumed the characteristics of the modern primary school, with emphasis on reading, writing, and arithmetic. Other shijukuвЂ”emphasizing Chinese, Dutch, and national studies, as well as practical artsвЂ”contributed to the diversification of learning and permitted students with different class and geographic backgrounds to pursue learning under the guidance of the same teacher. Their curricula were free from official control. The shogunate established schools to promote Confucianism, which provided the moral training for upper-class samurai that was essential for maintaining the ideology of the feudal regime. The officially run schools for the samurai were at the apex of the educational system in the Tokugawa era. Classics of Confucianism, historical works, and anthologies of Chinese poems were used as textbooks. Brush writing, kokugaku study of thought originating in Japan , and medicine were also included. They were founded at places of strategic importance by the feudal domain. The various shijuku became centres of interaction among students from different domains when such close contact among residents of different areas was prohibited. Many missionaries began to arrive, Christian schools were built, and European civilization was actively introduced. This was the so-called sakoku, or period of national isolation. From that time on, Christianity was strictly forbidden, and international trade was conducted with only the Chinese and the Dutch. Because contact with Europeans was restricted to the Dutch, Western studies developed as rangaku, or learning through the Dutch language. It is noteworthy that the Tokugawa period laid the foundation of modern Japanese learning. Muslim Spain rapidly became one of the most advanced civilizations of the period, where much of the learning of the pastвЂ”Oriental, Greek, and RomanвЂ”was preserved and further developed. Inevitably, scholarship in the adjacent FrankishвЂ”and subsequent FrenchвЂ”kingdom was influenced, leading to a revitalization of western Christian scholarship, which had long been dormant as a result of the barbarian migrations. The doctrines of Aristotle, which had been assiduously cultivated by the Muslims, were especially influential for their emphasis on the role of reason in human affairs and on the importance of the study of humankind in the present, as distinct from the earlier Christian preoccupation with the cultivation of faith as essential for the future life. Toward the end of the Middle Ages, there was a renewed interest in those studies that stressed the importance of man, his faculties, affairs, worldly aspirations, and well-being. The primacy of theology and otherworldliness was over. Society had been profoundly transformed, commerce had expanded, and life in the cities had evolved. Economic and political power, previously in the hands of the ecclesiastical hierarchy and the feudal lords, was beginning to be taken over by the city burghers. Use of the vernacular languages was becoming widespread. What the citizens of the Florentine republic needed was different from what was required by princes in the Renaissance courts of Italy or in other parts of Europe. Common to both, however, was the rejection of the medieval tradition that did not belong in the new society they were creating. The humanists, for example, were not concerned with extending education to the masses but turned their attention to the sons of princes and rich burghers. Rather than suggesting new themes, they wanted to discover the method by which the ancient texts should be studied. They reconstructed the past in order better to understand themselves and their own time. Marsilio Ficino and Pico della Mirandola were two of the most original of the scholars who taught there. Florence was the first city to have such a centre, but Rome and Naples soon had similar academies, and Padua and Venice also became centres of culture. He gave pedagogical expression to the ideal of harmony, or equilibrium, found in all aspects of humanism, and underlined the importance of the education of the body as well as of the spirit. The program outlined by Vergerio focused upon eloquence, history, and philosophy but also included the sciences mathematics, astronomy, and natural science as well as medicine, law, metaphysics, and theology. Learning was not to be exclusively from books, and emphasis was placed on the advantages of preparing for social life by study and discussion in common. The gymnasium was the principal school for young boys and was preparatory to further liberal studies in the major nonuniversity institution of higher learning, the academy. Both terms, gymnasium and academy, were Classical revivals, but their programs were markedly different from those of ancient Greece. The education given in his schools was perhaps the best example of the humanistic ideals, since it underlined the importance of literary studies together with a harmonious development of body and spirit, to the exclusion of any utilitarian purpose. Vittorino was a disciple of both Barzizza and Guarino. In fact, the school was one of the few efforts made during this period to extend education to a wider public. The program of study at La Giocosa was perhaps closer to the medieval tradition than that of the other boarding schools but, in any case, the spirit was different. After having studied the seven arts of the trivium grammar, rhetoric, and logic and the quadrivium geometry, arithmetic, harmonics, and astronomy , students completed the cycle by a study of philosophy and then, having mastered this discipline, could go on to higher studies leading to such professions as medicine, law, philosophy, and theology. The school continued only for a while after his death because, more than in the case of the other schools, La Giocosa was identified with the personality of the founder. Alberti felt that the natural place for education was the home and not scholastic institutions. The language in which he wrote was Italian, education being in his view so important in social life that he felt that discussion of it should not be limited to scholars. He stressed the importance of the father in the educational process. Baldassare Castiglione expressed the transition of humanism from the city to the Renaissance court. He himself was in the service of some of the most splendid princes, the Gonzagas at Mantua and the Montefeltros at Urbino. The courtier was to be the faithful collaborator of the prince. The courtier described by Castiglione, though in the service of necessarily devious princes, had to know how to keep his dignity and his virtue. The humanistic tradition of northern and western Europe The economic and social conditions behind the intellectual and cultural revolution of humanism in Italy were also present, though in different forms, in other parts of Europe. In some statesвЂ”chiefly England, France, and SpainвЂ”humanism and educational reforms developed around the courts, where political power was being concentrated. In others, such as the Netherlands, they were brought about by the city burghers, whose power, both economic and political, was increasing. The educational reforms that the humanists brought about in northern and western Europe developed slowly, but on the whole they were lasting, since they affected a greater number of people than was the case in Italy, where they tended to be restricted to a narrow circle of families. There were close relations between Italian and other European educational humanists, as there were among English, Dutch, French, and German humanists, and, thus, national differences were not so significant. Although their work was not originally in the field of education, education started when they set up hostels for students and exercised some moral direction over these students. This work was extended, and the Brethren eventually set up schools, first at Deventer and then in other cities. Some of the most important humanists of the Netherlands and Germany attended their schoolsвЂ”including, among others, Erasmus. Hegius had great talent as an organizer and succeeded not only in attracting some of the best scholars of the time but also in giving the school an efficient structure that became a model for many schools in the north. Desiderius Erasmus was a great scholar and educator, and his influence was felt all over Europe. His strong personality earned him the respect and sympathy of humanists who saw in him, as in few others, the symbol of their ideals and values. His educational program was original in many ways but in no sense democratic. The masses could not partake in higher education, since their aim was that of gaining skill in an occupation. He felt that religious instruction should be made available to all but that Classical literary studiesвЂ”the most important of all studiesвЂ”were for a minority. He was against instruction being imposed without the participation of the student. His optimism about the nature of man and the possibilities of molding him made Erasmus feel that, if adequately educated, any man could learn any discipline. He further sought renewal of the schools and better training for teachers, which he felt should be a public obligation, certainly no less important than military defense. Strongly influenced by Erasmus was Juan Luis Vives, who, though of Spanish origin, spent his life in various parts of EuropeвЂ”Paris, Louvain, Oxford, London, Bruges. Not only was his vision of the organic unity of pedagogy new, but he was the first of the humanists to emphasize the importance of popular education. He felt that it was the responsibility of the city to provide instruction for the poor and that the craft and merchant guilds had an important contribution to make to education. Unlike other humanists, moreover, he did not despise the utilitarian aspects of education but, on the contrary, suggested that his pupils should visit shops and workshops and go out into the country to learn something of real life. Just as he felt that education should not be limited to a single social class, so he felt that there should be no exclusion of women, though perhaps they required a different kind of education because of their different functions in life. Vives worked out a plan to take account of both educational structures and teacher training. In emphasizing the social function of education, he was against schools being run for profit and believed teachers should be prepared not only in their specific fields but also in psychology, so as to understand the child. He also suggested that teachers should meet four times a year to examine together the intellectual capacities of each one of their pupils so that suitable programs of study could be arranged for them. Vives considered that, in teaching, games had psychological value. Classical studies were to be completed by investigation of the modern world, in particular its geography, the horizons having been greatly enlarged by recent discoveries. The English humanists prepared excellent texts for studying the Classical languages, and they started a new type of grammar school, long to be a model. Most important were John Colet and Thomas More. Colet has an important place in English education. As dean of St. He had traveled a great deal in France and Italy and wanted to bring to his country the humanistic culture that had so fascinated him. More was both a distinguished humanist and a statesman. In his Utopia, More saw the connection between educational, social, and political problems and the influence that society therefore has on education. The religious reforms brought about by Martin Luther, John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and the ruling family of England were both cause and effect of these transformations. Characteristic of all these countries was the importance of the state in the organization of the educational system. The Reformation and European humanism influenced one another. The presuppositions behind the two movementsвЂ”humanism and ReformationвЂ”were different, however, and sooner or later a clash was inevitable. The most spectacular of these clashes was between Erasmus and Luther, despite the fact that for a long time they had respected each other. It was important for Erasmus and for the humanists to encourage the development of a world of writers and artists who, free from material preoccupations, could devote their time to literary and artistic pursuits. Luther specifically wished his humble social origins to be considered a title of nobility. He wanted to create educational institutions that would be open to the sons of peasants and miners, though this did not mean giving them political representation. The German princes were glad to promote the Reformation on condition that it would not diminish but would, on the contrary, increase their political power. Although Luther advocated the study of Classical languages, he believed that the primary purpose of such an educationвЂ”in marked distinction to the aims of the humanistsвЂ”was to promote piety through the reading of the Scriptures in their pure form. Even those children who had to work for their parents in trade or in the fields should be enabled, if only for a few hours a day, to attend local, city-maintained schools in order to promote their reading skills and, hence, piety. Out of the Lutheran argument emerged a new educational concept, the pietas litterata: literacy to promote piety. On the premise that a new class of cultivated men must be developed to substitute for the dispossessed monks and priests, new schools, whose upkeep was the responsibility of the princes and the cities, were soon organized along the lines suggested by Luther. It was more difficult to set up the city schools, for which there was no tradition. This example was shortly followed in Saxony. His ideas about secondary education were put into practice in the schools he founded at Eisleben. He was convinced that too many subjects should not be imposed on the student. This opened the door to a new type of formalism, however, a danger that in other spheres the educational reformers had tried to fight. He founded a grammar school in Strassburg now Strasbourg, France that became a model for German schools. Sturm believed that methods of instruction in elementary schools and, to some degree, in secondary schools should be different from those in the institutes of higher education. Not much autonomy was to be allowed the child, who started learning Latin at the age of six by memorizing. As a consequence, German was neglectedвЂ”as was physical instructionвЂ”and too much importance was given to form and expression for its own sake. Nevertheless, the situation became precarious, for political reasons, under a succession of sovereigns. Henry VIII included the schools in his policy of concentration and consolidation of power in the hands of the state. Many primary schools and grammar schools disappeared or retrenched their operations for lack of funds. Scholastic programs reflected changes in society: importance was given to English, to science, to modern languages in particular French and Italian , and to sports, as is still the case in England today. The Puritan contribution was thus considerable, though often hindered by the traditional forces of the Anglican church and the old nobility. He was interested in those who would have the future economic and political power in their hands. Though their education was to include the classics, it was to be supplemented by the needs of the new mercantile classвЂ”the national English language, manual arts, drawing, music, and all forms of sport. Elyot was obviously influenced by Erasmus. Roger Ascham was close in thought to many of the English humanists. He also believed that physical exercise and sport were important, not only for the nobility and the leisured classes but also for students and teachers. In agreement with some of the Lutheran educational reforms, he felt that schools should be open to all, including womenвЂ”who should, moreover, have access to higher education. I favour Italy, but England more. I know the Latin, but worship the English. He was opposed to private tutors and felt that boys and youths were better off in schools and that their education should be geared to their social status and future activity. Schooling should aim at preparing statesmen and men of action as well as scholars and thus should include history, modern languages, and politics. Bacon himself had a passion for study not only for its utilitarian purposes but also because it was for him a true source of delight. This traditional education faced opposition, however, both from Protestants and from reformers who had been influenced by the humanist principle of the primacy of the individual. He himself studied in various fields, from medicine to letters, and was passionately interested in all of them. The culture that Rabelais wanted for his two heroes was directly connected with the world in which they lived. Gargantua and Pantagruel were perhaps among the first texts by a humanist in which not only the quadrivium but also scientific studies were enthusiastically proposed. Petrus Ramus, one of the most bitter critics of French medieval Aristotelianism, was an intelligent reformer of educational methods. Though often critical of humanism, especially when it was misinterpreted and transformed into pedantic studies, he had great admiration for the classics and lacked the scientific interests of Rabelais or Ramus. Montaigne wrote specifically about education in two essays on the upbringing of children and on pedantry. He was in favour of instruction by tutors capable of giving the student individual attentionвЂ”the ideal tutor being one with a good mind rather than one filled with pedantic notions. There were many differences between Montaigne and Erasmus, but both were convinced that for the wise man there could be no geographic boundaries, for, through cultural diffusion, barriers would be broken down. The Protestant reformer John Calvin was of French origin, but he settled in Geneva and made this Swiss city one of the most prominent centres of the Reformation. Unlike Luther, whose reforms were backed by princes hoping to gain greater political independence, Calvin was supported by the new mercantile class, which needed political and administrative changes for the purposes of its own expansion. Calvin considered popular education important, but he was not an innovator. Documents of the period show the steps taken to achieve the aim of universal education. The major educational contributions of Calvinism were its diffusion to a larger number of people and the development of Protestant education at the university level. The religious upheaval, so important in northern Europe, also affectedвЂ”though less violentlyвЂ”the Latin countries of southern Europe. If the new ferment in the Roman Catholic Church was mainly directed at answering the Protestants, at times it also had something original to suggest. Education was foremost in the minds of the leaders of the Counter-Reformation. The faithful were to be educated. For this, capable priests were needed, and, thus, seminaries multiplied to prepare the clergy for a more austere life in the service of the church. There was a flowering of utopian ideas, which should be remembered when trying to understand unofficial Catholic thought of the period. But if in the minds of the utopians this education was to be universal, it was in fact almost entirely directed at the ruling classes. An authoritarian uniformity was thus the rule in their colleges, and individual initiative was discouraged. The teacher was thought of not only as an instructor but also as an educator and often a controller, for he was at the centre of a vast network of controls, in which those students considered promising also took part. Emulation was encouraged in the class, which was often divided into two groups to stimulate competition. The effects on education of a movement as complex and widespread as the Reformation were far-reaching. Perhaps its most original contribution was the extension of the idea of education at the elementary level. This, however, was to take several centuries to be implemented in practice. France, the Habsburg empire, England, and Russia became the leading powers in Europe. The absolutist state extended its control beyond the political and into the religious with the creation of the established church and into almost all other aspects of human life. Although the High and later Middle Ages had witnessed the growth of middle-class forces, the pattern of society still clearly bore the stamp of court life. The concentration of power determined this life, and the citizen and his possessions were more and more at the disposal of the aristocracy. The citizen was subject. Even in an absolutist state, however, education cannot be the sole privilege of the rich or the ruling classes, because an efficient absolutist state requires capable subjects, albeit bound to their social position. There was not only an inclination toward encyclopaedism and systemization of the sciences but also, in similar fashion, a tendency to set education aright by extensive school regulations. These social and pedagogic changes were bound up with new tendencies in philosophy. Sir Francis Bacon of England was one who criticized the teachers of his day, saying that they offered nothing but words and that their schools were narrow in thought. He believed that the use of inductive and empirical methods would bring the knowledge that would give man strength and make possible a reorganization of society. Therefore, he demanded that schools should be scientific workplaces in the service of life and that they should put the exact sciences before logic and rhetoric. The ability to think makes doubt and critical evaluation of the environment possible. A science based only on empiricism fails to achieve any vital, natural explanations but only mathematical, mechanistic ones of doubtful living use. Only what reason ratio recognizes can be called truth. Thus, education must be concerned with the development of critical rationality. Like Descartes, Benedict de Spinoza and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz also outlined rationalistic philosophical systems. Decisive for educational theory was their statement that knowledge and experience originate in thinking not in sense impressions, which can provide only examples and individual facts and that formal thinking categories should form the substance of education. They believed that the aim of education should be the mastery of thinking and judgment rather than the mere assimilation of facts. The Protestant demand for universal elementary education The schools that were actually developed fell short of these philosophically based demands. This is especially true of elementary education. For basic, popular education there were meagre arrangements. This changed as a result of Protestantism. John Wycliffe had demanded that everyone become a theologian, and Martin Luther, by translating the Holy Scriptures, made the reading of original works possible. Everyone, he asserted, should have access to the source of belief, and all children should go to school. At first, the Protestant schools were directed and supported almost entirely by the church.
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Assignment 1: Reflective Leadership Essay . and I have resolved to follow the servant leadership model (Rinehart, p in all aspects of my life.
Email: wss@ Essay Introductions. The introduction establishes the topic area, provides any necessary definitions, qualifies the.
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the expository essay is concerned with exposing, informing readers about a certain subject and backing up all your claims with accurate and.
Research Proposals Browse through our free selection of sample The research paper starts with an introduction about the problem statement to be addressed.
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Florida Teacher's Essay Becomes Rallying Cry for Respect. By Cynthia McCabe. When people were attacking her and her fellow dedicated.
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15 minutes to read, take notes, write an outline, think about the issue, jot down a tentative thesis; 40 minutes to write the essay. The Prompt. The prompt contain.
The list of prompts for the Common Application Essay is fairly Another prompt could work but the student isn't crazy about. So I ask.
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Taken from: 50 Essays: A Portable Anthology edited by Samuel Cohen. вЂњThe Allegory of the CaveвЂќ. By Plato. And now, I said, let me show in a figure how far our.
So, let's get it started: Argumentative essay topics: Gender Roles 1) Girls can ask boys out. .. 344) The fun theory: Having fun is the best type of motivation.
Essay Writing Services. Essays are probably the most common writing assignment given to high school and college students. Because of.
AMCAS (American Medical College Application Service) is a centralized be asked to write an essay about why you want to go to med school.
How To Write a Good History Essay . You must give a judicious selection of evidence (i.e. facts and quotations) to support the argument you are making.
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textbook, select any literary work assigned for the semester and construct a literary analysis. (minimum 750 words). Consult the sample essays in the text and on.
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Start an essay with a theme to make your work coherent and easy to follow. For example, the theme of an autobiographical essay for college can be "resilience.
Have a look at the sample Task 2 question from the IELTS Writing test, then check out our advice on This is an example of a problem / solution style of essay.
A stellar college application essay is the most important part of your If you don't follow the application essay guidelines, the admissions officer.
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Here, we have gathered a list of 200 topic for argumentative writing that you can use to write your paper arranged by categories. Argumentative Essay Topics on Technology and Social Media. Are the Web .. How To Write a Proposal Essay.
Many students often unintentionally misinterpret the instructions and inaccurately answer the provided question. Also, check the limits and lengths given: words, pages and of the entire essay. Sometimes, entire essays are counted out, no matter how great the writing is, just because they have failed to follow the guidelines given. Online applications automatically format essays to fit standard guidelines. However, if you student is not applying online, he or she will have to ensure that formatting is standardized. Usually, only print on one side of the page. You want the admissions officer to want to keep reading what your student has written. Encourage your student to start out with an interesting, perhaps even catchy, introduction, so that the reader is encouraged to continue reading. This can go a variety of routes. Some students use passive voice throughout an essay. Some switch between active and passive voice. You can utilize a word processing program, which can provide assistance with recognizing passive tense to active but, be extremely cautious in relying completely on any word processing tool because they are never completely accurate. Example of Passive Voice: Your car has been scratched.. Example of Active Voice: I have scratched your car. Writing is meant to be a creative process and using these burnt out phrases takes that creativity away. Suggest your student uses more original descriptions. It packs much more punch! The conclusion of the essay should ultimately remind without repeating word for word the reader of the key points discussed within the body and not bring up any new ideas or subjects. It should, however, leave a lasting statement or impression that will stick with the reader once the essay is complete. Though it may seem like a daunting process, for you and your student alike, starting early and taking it day by day is the best way to ensure the best essay outcome for everyone involved! Every semester, Fastweb helps thousands of students pay for school by matching them to scholarships, grants and awards for which they actually qualify. Sign up today to get started. Course Hero Monthly Scholarship. My Colleges College Search Graduate Students Bookstore Test Prep College Advice Student Life Volunteer. Featured Scholarships Scholarship Matches Scholarship Deadlines Scholarship Tips Scholarship Winners Scholarship Videos. Budgeting Calculators FAFSA Private Student Loans Financial Aid Videos Financial Aid Advice Personal Finance. Financial Aid for Female Students. How to Create the Modern Resume. Order Free Materials Download Free Materials Links to Fastweb Financial Aid Information Scholarship ListBuilder Educator Login. Join Fastweb for Educators Today. Get Fastweb's Scholarship Search Widget for Your Website. Cover Letter for Internship Sample. IRS Data Retrieval Tool. Like us on Facebook. Follow us on Twitter. Scholarships by Year of Study. Scholarships for High School Seniors. Scholarships for College Freshman. Scholarships for Bilingual Students.
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How To Write an Essay can be viewed sequentially, as if going through ten .. In a short essay (under words), a lengthy introduction is hardly needed.
In many ways, the essay is the most important part of the college application. These prompts can be very detailed, like this one from The Common Application.
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An essay or paper on Argument For Gun Control. It has seemed as if Americans have always had an obsession with owning guns. With the laws allowing U.S.
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The cause and effect essay can end in a number of ways. It might be enough for your paper to point out causes or effects that people might not have thought of.
Many people want to jump right into writing their essay contest entries, but it's a better idea to brainstorm several different ideas. Oftentimes.
h r2 Exploring the Subject of the Essay вЂ” Yourself In This Chapter > Searching for key moments or influences > Understanding how all essays reflect your.
The conclusion of an essay is where you must make your final argument clear. If you are taking the IELTS.
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Coffeehouse conversation, in turn, generated new essay topics. the preference for Horatian satire over Juvenalian or, in other words, the use of satire that.
Please log in, or sign up for a new account and purchase a subscription to continue reading. Please log in, or sign up for a new account to continue reading. Thank you for reading! On your next view you will be asked to log in or create an account to continue reading. On your next view you will be asked to log in to your subscriber account or create an account and subscribe purchase a subscription to continue reading. A mixture of rain and snow showers. As tears of happiness rolled down their aging faces, the couple glowed with excitement. For years, they suffered endless heartbreaks. Losing babies through horrid miscarriages nearly broke them, and the costs of In Vitro Fertilization and other doctor-help ways of having a baby gave them a nearly insurmountable challenge and threw them into debt. But now, finally, after spending all of their savings, their baby was delivered from a surrogate mother. This method was their last hope, and it had paid off. They watched their beautiful child grow, and cherished every moment as a blessing, always remembering what they went through to get her. When their little girl was grown, they knew they had to give her some freedom. Knowing the dangers of driving and the numbers of accidents that teens have, they were extremely nervous about their daughter's safety, but she was full of excitement. Her school had an assembly, and they rattled off statistics. She thought about it every time she drove, and made sure to pay attention. Sitting at a stoplight, she waited patiently for it to change. Then, as she pulled away, the horrific screeching of rubber tires, the grinding together of metal and smashing glass made an unforgettable sound. The little girl who had been so loved and intentionally brought into the world by her parents was so unintentionally taken out of it. The young man that smashed into the side of her car had been texting his girlfriend, sure she would get mad if he didn't reply to her "What are you doing? He survived the crash, suffering only a concussion and broken collarbone, but the girl died on impact, her neck snapped. The girl's parents turned completely ghostly when they heard the news. Crying the all too familiar tears of complete heartbreak, their quivering hands struggled to hold each other up as they sobbed. They began to question every aspect of their lives, wondering what they did to deserve so many hardships, and why the young man got to live, while their blameless daughter had to die. At another assembly at the girl's old school, the young man was brought in to speak. He struggled through his speech to the group of high school students. He began by telling them facts that he knew they probably weren't listening to. But it wasn't until he broke down and told his story were they really listening. By the end, their glassy, tear-filled eyes looked up at him, and he hoped that someone would change their mind, and maybe take a pledge not to text and drive, and that he could save a life. All across America people are having problems with texting and driving. Texting and driving should be illegal. Why it should be illegal is because of the percentage of crashes caused by texting and driving, the percentage of fatalities caused by texting and driving and also the impact it can have on others around you or another person. That is over Twenty-five thousand to many. The long term impact on other people around you could possibly be the worse, just imagine how your mother, father, sister, brother, or grandparents would feel if you lost your life because of something as stupid as texting and driving. Or how would you be able to live with yourself by taking a life from another person because of your texting and driving. There is a site called where you can make pledge to not texting and drive. Their website also has a lot of information on the effects of texting and driving. All you have to do is click I Pledge, I did it, Will you? The numbers are actually very devastating. Texting and driving should be a crime. But the thing is, everyone will eventually be finding themselves doing it. Were all humans, we make mistakes. Texting and driving is life threating, no matter what anybody says. There are organizations that actually care about texting and driving. You can also share the website information to inform others and to try to make a difference in their life. Texting and driving is not right, and needs to be taken seriously. I know most people have texted and drove. I would just like to try and convince you to not to. A fatal car wreck, pedestrian getting hit, family pet injured or killed. All of these and much more can occur in such a little increment of time. Engaging in visual-manual subtasks such as reaching for a phone, dialing and texting associated with the use of hand-held phones and other portable devices increased the risk of getting into a crash by three times. Driving a vehicle while texting is six times more dangerous than driving while intoxicated according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Together we can stop this horrific plague. There are many other ways you can put a stop to this also. Everyone needs to be thoroughly informed on what texting and driving can do to you and your family, educate everyone you know and care about! Many people text and drive on a daily basis. Go to take the pledge to never text and drive, not only for yourself but, also for the safety everyone else. Taking this pledge will make our community safer. As a whole we can make a difference! Texting and driving is not worth killing or hurting people. The text can wait. Texting and driving is the number one most preventable type of car crash in the world. If you just put your phone up when you drive, you could prevent one more car crash. Not only does it kill that person, it also destroys their family. Springfield News-Leader NATIONAL NEWS. We hope that you continue to enjoy our free content. We hope that you enjoy our free content. Thank you for signing in! Mostly cloudy early, then clearing overnight. Crime and Accident Reports. Texting and driving: A lesson learned too late As tears of happiness rolled down their aging faces, the couple glowed with excitement. Their new healthy baby girl was handed to them after hours of labor, and they were mesmerized. When you are texting and driving you are putting yourself and others life in jeopardy. View our latest e-Edition - click the image on the left. Nature Trails Work Day. NHC to Host Evangelist Tim Lee. Bingo at the Rolla Elks. North Wood R-IV Board of Education Meeting. 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I was hungry 50 successful harvard application essays . What good weremy grades and вЂњ college transcriptвЂќ achievements when even my.
Here are 25 creative college essay prompts to get you started! To assist you in writing your best personal statement, colleges might provide creative college essay prompts to help stimulate your thinking process so that you can write the best possible personal statement.
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In the context of writing a paper, these bridges are your transitions. it's a good idea provide the quick and dirty version of the ideas you just.
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You write a mini evaluative essay every time you review a restaurant online, provide feedback on an Ebay purchase or discuss your favorite sports teams'.
The Modern Language Association (MLA) does not require you to create a cover page when you complete your research paper, but sometimes.
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