Examples Of Definition Essays!
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Examples Of Definition Essays
Examples Of Definition Essays
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Quotations Newspaper Articles Special Features Links. Search It was Maeterlinck who introduced me to the bee. I mean, in the psychical. I had had a business introduction earlier. It is strange that I should remember a formality like. Bee scientists always speak of the bee as she. It is because all the. In the hive there is one married bee, called. Some of the daughters are young maids,. Every spring the queen comes out of the hive and flies away with one. This will be enough to last the year, but not more than enough, because. She must always have that many children on hand. She lays from two thousand to three thousand. There are always a few royal heirs in stock and ready to take her place. These girls are kept by themselves, and are regally fed and tended from. No other bees get such fine food as they get, or live such a high. By consequence they are larger and longer and sleeker. And they have a curved sting, shaped like a. A common bee will sting any one or anybody, but a royalty stings royalties. A common bee will sting and kill another common bee, for cause, but. It is a duel with the curved stings. As regards the ethics of the judicial assassination of the queen, that. During substantially the whole of her short life of five or six years. Hubber [sic], Lubbock, Maeterlinck - in fact, all the great authorities. Why, the innumerable facts brought to light by their own painstaking and. That seems to settle it. But that is the way of the scientist. He will spend thirty years in. When you point out this miscarriage to him he does not answer your. Scientists have odious manners, except when you prop up. To be strictly fair, I will concede that now and then one of them will. When I discovered that the bee was human I wrote about it to. For evasions, I have seen. After the queen, the personage next in importance in the hive is the virgin. The virgins are fifty thousand or one hundred thousand in number, and they are. No work is done, in the hive or out of it, save by. The males do not work, the queen does no work, unless laying eggs is work,. There are only two million of them, anyway, and. The distribution of work in a. A bee that has been trained to one of the many and. Cooks will play the piano if you like, but they. In my time I have asked a cook to chop wood, and I know. And then the butler. You ask the butler to wash. Books are very well, but books do not cover the whole domain. Pride of profession is one of the boniest bones of. Without doubt it is so in the hive.
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Module 2 Essay Notes Directive process analysis = how to do something step- by-step; directions for completing work (to make something). A good way to find topics are to look at your hobbies, interests, and strengths.
INTRODUCTION Settings Hook is a sequel to the original Peter Pan's story, The movie takes place after the departure of Peter Pan.
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Most Popular Argumentative Essay Topics of The List. Here you will find a list Middle/ High School -Level Argumentative Essay Topics. Should teenagers.
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Importance of Music essays What would life be without music? The world would be a very quiet place. Music is in many ways the fabric of our lives and the.
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Miscellaneous observations on a topic are not enough to make an accomplished academic essay. An essay should have an argument. It should answer a.
How to Write a Persuasive Essay. A persuasive essay is an essay used to convince a reader about a particular idea or focus, usually one that you believe in.
His Essay on Man was initially published anonymously, Lord Bolingbroke. Essay on Man - online text: Summary, and, in some cases, it was.
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Styling titles of works. and encyclopedias Blog entries Chapters in books Episodes of television shows Essays Photographs Poems (short) Short stories Songs.
A college essay is an important piece of a college application and an opportunity For example, writing about attending Carleton College to major in agriculture.
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The observation essay is written after an observation of some kind. Often teachers assign an observation essay when the assignment is to go watch a concert or to watch a group of people at a park, library, or etc. Many psychology students are assigned observation essays after they watch a group of people in their process of doing research. This is a sample paragraph of an observation of the people at a mall. The writer describes some of the people she sees. She gives precise detail to some of the people. When you're stuck on a tough school assignment, let deliver a quality term paper or essay with all your requirements for a reasonable fee. We even have live phone support for every one of our clients. Free Sample Hot Topic Essays. Types of Essays and College Papers. Free Essay Help Questions. USA Community College Custom Writing. A Sample Paragraph of an Observation Essay after Observing People at a Mall:. A family of three little girls with their father and mother seemed to hurry from store to store. The mother was always trying to hold hands with the girls so they could not get away. A couple of senior citizens walked closely as they glanced at the different stores. Another couple who seemed in love walked through the mall holding hands and every once in a while they stopped to kiss but always watching to see if anyone was looking. The mall was full of people and it was crowded at times.. Order Your Custom Term Paper Today! Back To Main Essay List. Sign up for exclusive rewards! We recommend moving this block and the preceding CSS link to the HEAD of your HTML file. Check out our online video!
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Julius Caesar, the mighty emperor of Rome can be catalogued as a tragic hero. Brutus is another character who can possibly be characterized.
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A good introduction will show them that you know what you're talking about making clear the main areas that you are going to write about (your plan). The final part of the essay will ask how far society's attitudes are in fact.
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An essay is, generally, a piece of writing that gives the author's own argument вЂ” but the definition is vague, overlapping with those of an article, a pamphlet, and a short story.
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def-i-ni-tion (def' e-nish' en) n. 1. The act of defining a word, phrase, or term. 2. The act of making clear and distinct. 3. A determining of outline.
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Of man what see we, but his station here,. From which to reason, or to which refer? Through worlds unnumber'd though the God be known,. 'Tis ours to trace him.
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In the Critical Lens Essay, the student-writer discusses two works of literature from the perspective of a statement , one that is either provided for them or one they have to choose on their own. The student-writer provides a valid interpretation of the statement , disagrees or agrees with it as they have interpreted it, and supports their opinion using specific references to appropriate literary elements from the two works of literature. This process often involves an implementation of research to defend certain assertions in the work. Starts with a topic sentence easing the reader into the essay, grabbing their attention in hopes of keeping it as they make their point. The purpose of the TOPIC SENTENCE is to establish the tone and narrow the focus for the rest of the essay. THESIS STATEMENT вЂ” the argument that the essay will be making, from start to finish. THREE MAIN POINTS defending, supporting and substantiating the Thesis Statement. Each of the body paragraphs will expound on these three main points, one by one. Examples of appropriate transitional phrases for this first body paragraph: First of all, To start off, Firstly. Examples of appropriate transitional phrases in this paragraph: Next, Subsequently, Also, Secondly, Then. Examples of appropriate transitional phrases in this paragraph: Lastly, Thirdly, Also, Finally. Restatement of the original Thesis, as well as the main points that supported it and legitimized it. Have an idea for your critical lens essay but cannot find the right words to express it? This may result in problems during payment processing. Please choose one of the supported browsers from the list below:. Make one step closer towards your graduation degree! Critical Lens Essay Outline. Critical Lens Essay Format. How to Write a Five Paragraph Essay Outline. Outlining the Critical Lens Essay. What if the assignment needs some changes or something? To request a revision for the completed paper, please login to your control panel and click on a "Request Revision" link. Get professional writing help! Get a free price quote! I have an account.. I'm a new customer. Or click to login with:. We will not post anything without permission. Please enter your registered e-mail address:. Your browser is not supported.
Gender Roles Essay. 562 Words 3 Pages. Gender Roles Women and men have extremely different roles in society. These gender roles are very evident in the.
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Albert Camus was a French-Algerian journalist, playwright, novelist, philosophical essayist, and Nobel laureate. Though he was neither by advanced training nor profession a philosopher, he nevertheless made important, forceful contributions to a wide range of issues in moral philosophy in his novels, reviews, articles, essays, and speechesвЂ”from terrorism and political violence to suicide and the death penalty. He is often described as an existentialist writer, though he himself disavowed the label. He began his literary career as a political journalist and as an actor, director, and playwright in his native Algeria. By mid-century, based on the strength of his three novels The Stranger, The Plague, and The Fall and two book-length philosophical essays The Myth of Sisyphus and The Rebel , he had achieved an international reputation and readership. It was in these works that he introduced and developed the twin philosophical ideasвЂ”the concept of the Absurd and the notion of RevoltвЂ”that made him famous. These are the ideas that people immediately think of when they hear the name Albert Camus spoken today. The Absurd can be defined as a metaphysical tension or opposition that results from the presence of human consciousnessвЂ”with its ever-pressing demand for order and meaning in lifeвЂ”in an essentially meaningless and indifferent universe. Camus considered the Absurd to be a fundamental and even defining characteristic of the modern human condition. The notion of Revolt refers to both a path of resolved action and a state of mind. It can take extreme forms such as terrorism or a reckless and unrestrained egoism both of which are rejected by Camus , but basically, and in simple terms, it consists of an attitude of heroic defiance or resistance to whatever oppresses human beings. He was the second child of Lucien Auguste Camus, a military veteran and wine-shipping clerk, and of Catherine Marie Cardona, a house-keeper and part-time factory worker. As a child, about the only thing Camus ever learned about his father was that he had once become violently ill after witnessing a public execution. In his posthumously published autobiographical novel The First Man , Camus recalls this period of his life with a mixture of pain and affection as he describes conditions of harsh poverty the three-room apartment had no bathroom, no electricity, and no running water relieved by hunting trips, family outings, childhood games, and scenic flashes of sun, seashore, mountain, and desert. These father figures introduced him to a new world of history and imagination and to literary landscapes far beyond the dusty streets of Belcourt and working-class poverty. It was in secondary school that Camus became an avid reader absorbing Gide, Proust, Verlaine, and Bergson, among others , learned Latin and English, and developed a lifelong interest in literature, art, theatre, and film. That helped me in later life, especially in mainland France, where nobody plays straight. Among his various employments during the time were stints of routine office work where one job consisted of a Bartleby-like recording and sifting of meteorological data and another involved paper shuffling in an auto license bureau. One can well imagine that it was as a result of this experience that his famous conception of Sisyphean struggle, heroic defiance in the face of the Absurd, first began to take shape within his imagination. That same year Camus also earned his degree and completed his dissertation, a study of the influence of Plotinus and neo-Platonism on the thought and writings of St. Over the next three years Camus further established himself as an emerging author, journalist, and theatre professional. The name change signaled a new emphasis on classic drama and avant-garde aesthetics and a shift away from labor politics and agitprop. This period of his life began inauspiciouslyвЂ”war in Europe, the occupation of France, official censorship, and a widening crackdown on left-wing journals. To help make ends meet, he taught part-time French history and geography at a private school in Oran. The novel propelled him into immediate literary renown. During this period, while contending with recurrent bouts of tuberculosis, he also published The Myth of Sisyphus , his philosophical anatomy of suicide and the absurd, and joined Gallimard Publishing as an editor, a position he held until his death. After the Liberation, Camus continued as editor of Combat, oversaw the production and publication of two plays, The Misunderstanding and Caligula , and assumed a leading role in Parisian intellectual society in the company of Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir among others. This powerful and controversial work, with its explicit condemnation of Marxism-Leninism and its emphatic denunciation of unrestrained violence as a means of human liberation, led to an eventual falling out with Sartre and, along with his opposition to the Algerian National Liberation Front, to his being branded a reactionary in the view of many European Communists. Yet his position also established him as an outspoken champion of individual freedom and as an impassioned critic of tyranny and terrorism, whether practiced by the Left or by the Right. During this period he was still afflicted by tuberculosis and was perhaps even more sorely beset by the deteriorating political situation in his native AlgeriaвЂ”which had by now escalated from demonstrations and occasional terrorist and guerilla attacks into open violence and insurrection. Camus still hoped to champion some kind of rapprochement that would allow the native Muslim population and the French pied noir minority to live together peaceably in a new de-colonized and largely integrated, if not fully independent, nation. Alas, by this point, as he painfully realized, the odds of such an outcome were becoming increasingly unlikely. He absorbed the announcement with mixed feelings of gratitude, humility, and amazement. On the one hand, the award was obviously a tremendous honor. On the other, not only did he feel that his friend and esteemed fellow novelist Andre Malraux was more deserving, he was also aware that the Nobel itself was widely regarded as the kind of accolade usually given to artists at the end of a long career. Yet, as he indicated in his acceptance speech at Stockholm, he considered his own career as still in mid-flight, with much yet to accomplish and even greater writing challenges ahead: Every person, and assuredly every artist, wants to be recognized. A man almost young, rich only in his doubts, and with his work still in progressвЂ¦how could such a man not feel a kind of panic at hearing a decree that transports him all of a suddenвЂ¦to the center of a glaring spotlight? And with what feelings could he accept this honor at a time when other writers in Europe, among them the very greatest, are condemned to silence, and even at a time when the country of his birth is going through unending misery? Of course Camus could not have known as he spoke these words that most of his writing career was in fact behind him. He also formulated new concepts for film and television, assumed a leadership role in a new experimental national theater, and continued to campaign for peace and a political solution in Algeria. Unfortunately, none of these latter projects would be brought to fulfillment. The author was buried in the local cemetery at Lourmarin, a village in Provencal where he and his wife and daughters had lived for nearly a decade. In this respect, it is also worth noting that at no time in his career did Camus ever describe himself as a deep thinker or lay claim to the title of philosopher. Instead, he nearly always referred to himself simply, yet proudly, as un ecrivain вЂ”a writer. This is an important fact to keep in mind when assessing his place in intellectual history and in twentieth-century philosophy, for by no means does he qualify as a system-builder or theorist or even as a disciplined thinker. To pin down exactly why and in what distinctive sense Camus may be termed a philosophical writer, we can begin by comparing him with other authors who have merited the designation. Right away, we can eliminate any comparison with the efforts of Lucretius and Dante, who undertook to unfold entire cosmologies and philosophical systems in epic verse. Camus obviously attempted nothing of the sort. On the other hand, we can draw at least a limited comparison between Camus and writers like Pascal, Kierkegaard, and NietzscheвЂ”that is, with writers who were first of all philosophers or religious writers, but whose stylistic achievements and literary flair gained them a special place in the pantheon of world literature as well. Here we may note that Camus himself was very conscious of his debt to Kierkegaard and Nietzsche especially in the style and structure of The Myth of Sisyphus and The Rebel and that he might very well have followed in their literary-philosophical footsteps if his tuberculosis had not side-tracked him into fiction and journalism and prevented him from pursuing an academic career. By his own definition then Camus is a philosophical writer in the sense that he has a conceived his own distinctive and original world-view and b sought to convey that view mainly through images, fictional characters and events, and via dramatic presentation rather than through critical analysis and direct discourse. He is also both a novelist of ideas and a psychological novelist, and in this respect, he certainly compares most closely to Dostoyevsky and Sartre, two other writers who combine a unique and distinctly philosophical outlook, acute psychological insight, and a dramatic style of presentation. Like Camus, Sartre was a productive playwright, and Dostoyevsky remains perhaps the most dramatic of all novelists, as Camus clearly understood, having adapted both The Brothers Karamazov and The Possessed for the stage. Camus made no effort to conceal the fact that his novel was partly based on and could be interpreted as an allegory or parable of the rise of Nazism and the nightmare of the Occupation. However, the plague metaphor is both more complicated and more flexible than that, extending to signify the Absurd in general as well as any calamity or disaster that tests the mettle of human beings, their endurance, their solidarity, their sense of responsibility, their compassion, and their will. Set in a seedy bar in the red-light district of Amsterdam, the work is a small masterpiece of compression and style: a confessional and semi-autobiographical novel, an arresting character study and psychological portrait, and at the same time a wide-ranging philosophical discourse on guilt and innocence, expiation and punishment, good and evil. Camus began his literary career as a playwright and theatre director and was planning new dramatic works for film, stage, and television at the time of his death. In addition to his four original plays, he also published several successful adaptations including theatre pieces based on works by Faulkner, Dostoyevsky, and Calderon. He took particular pride in his work as a dramatist and man of the theatre. However, his plays never achieved the same popularity, critical success, or level of incandescence as his more famous novels and major essays. The two women operate a boarding house where, in order to make ends meet, they quietly murder and rob their patrons. Through a tangle of misunderstanding and mistaken identity they wind up murdering their unrecognized visitor. Camus has explained the drama as an attempt to capture the atmosphere of malaise, corruption, demoralization, and anonymity that he experienced while living in France during the German occupation. The play is set in the Spanish seaport city of Cadiz, famous for its beaches, carnivals, and street musicians. By the end of the first act, the normally laid-back and carefree citizens fall under the dominion of a gaudily beribboned and uniformed dictator named Plague based on Generalissimo Franco and his officious, clip-board wielding Secretary who turns out to be a modern, bureaucratic incarnation of the medieval figure Death. One of the prominent concerns of the play is the Orwellian theme of the degradation of language via totalitarian politics and bureaucracy symbolized onstage by calls for silence, scenes in pantomime, and a gagged chorus. The play effectively dramatizes the issues that Camus would later explore in detail in The Rebel , especially the question of whether acts of terrorism and political violence can ever be morally justified and if so, with what limitations and in what specific circumstances. After the successful completion of his bombing mission and subsequent arrest, Kalyayev welcomed his execution on similarly practical and purely political grounds, believing that his death would further the cause of revolution and social justice. Upon seeing the two children in the carriage, he refuses to toss his bomb not because doing so would be politically inexpedient but because he is overcome emotionally, temporarily unnerved by the sad expression in their eyes. Similarly, at the end of the play he embraces his death not so much because it will aid the revolution, but almost as a form of karmic penance, as if it were indeed some kind of sacred duty or metaphysical requirement that must be performed in order for true justice to be achieved. It is here that Camus formally introduces and fully articulates his most famous idea, the concept of the Absurd, and his equally famous image of life as a Sisyphean struggle. Only this time his primary concern is not suicide but murder. He takes up the question of whether acts of terrorism and political violence can be morally justified, which is basically the same question he had addressed earlier in his play The Just Assassins. After arguing that an authentic life inevitably involves some form of conscientious moral revolt, Camus winds up concluding that only in rare and very narrowly defined instances is political violence justified. However, he apparently never felt comfortable identifying himself as a philosopherвЂ”a term he seems to have associated with rigorous academic training, systematic thinking, logical consistency, and a coherent, carefully defined doctrine or body of ideas. This is not to suggest that Camus lacked ideas or to say that his thought cannot be considered a personal philosophy. It is simply to point out that he was not a systematic, or even a notably disciplined thinker and that, unlike Heidegger and Sartre , for example, he showed very little interest in metaphysics and ontology, which seems to be one of the reasons he consistently denied that he was an existentialist. In short, he was not much given to speculative philosophy or any kind of abstract theorizing. His thought is instead nearly always related to current events e. Though he was baptized, raised, and educated as a Catholic and invariably respectful towards the Church, Camus seems to have been a natural-born pagan who showed almost no instinct whatsoever for belief in the supernatural. Even as a youth, he was more of a sun-worshipper and nature lover than a boy notable for his piety or religious faith. On the other hand, there is no denying that Christian literature and philosophy served as an important influence on his early thought and intellectual development. As a young high school student, Camus studied the Bible, read and savored the Spanish mystics St. Theresa of Avila and St. John of the Cross, and was introduced to the thought of St. Augustine would later serve as the subject of his baccalaureate dissertation and becomeвЂ”as a fellow North African writer, quasi-existentialist, and conscientious observer-critic of his own lifeвЂ”an important lifelong influence. In college Camus absorbed Kierkegaard, who, after Augustine, was probably the single greatest Christian influence on his thought. He also studied Schopenhauer and NietzscheвЂ”undoubtedly the two writers who did the most to set him on his own path of defiant pessimism and atheism. Other notable influences include not only the major modern philosophers from the academic curriculumвЂ”from Descartes and Spinoza to BergsonвЂ”but also, and just as importantly, philosophical writers like Stendhal, Melville, Dostoyevsky, and Kafka. Here he unfolds what is essentially a hedonistic, indeed almost primitivistic, celebration of nature and the life of the senses. In the Romantic poetic tradition of writers like Rilke and Wallace Stevens, he offers a forceful rejection of all hereafters and an emphatic embrace of the here and now. One life, this life, is enough. Sky and sea, mountain and desert, have their own beauty and magnificence and constitute a sufficient heaven. In the first place, the Camus of Nuptials is still a young man of twenty-five, aflame with youthful joie de vivre. He favors a life of impulse and daring as it was honored and practiced in both Romantic literature and in the streets of Belcourt. Recently married and divorced, raised in poverty and in close quarters, beset with health problems, this young man develops an understandable passion for clear air, open space, colorful dreams, panoramic vistas, and the breath-taking prospects and challenges of the larger world. The young Camus is more of a sensualist and pleasure-seeker, more of a dandy and aesthete, than the more hardened and austere figure who will endure the Occupation while serving in the French underground. He is a writer passionate in his conviction that life ought to be lived vividly and intenselyвЂ”indeed rebelliously to use the term that will take on increasing importance in his thought. He is also a writer attracted to causes, though he is not yet the author who will become world-famous for his moral seriousness and passionate commitment to justice and freedom. All of which is understandable. It is proudly and inconsolably pessimistic, but not in a polemical or overbearing way. It is unbending, hardheaded, determinedly skeptical. It is tolerant and respectful of world religious creeds, but at the same time wholly unsympathetic to them. In the end it is an affirmative philosophy that accepts and approves, and in its own way blesses, our dreadful mortality and our fundamental isolation in the world. Regardless of whether he is producing drama, fiction, or non-fiction, Camus in his mature writings nearly always takes up and re-explores the same basic philosophical issues. These recurrent topoi constitute the key components of his thought. They include themes like the Absurd, alienation, suicide, and rebellion that almost automatically come to mind whenever his name is mentioned. Hence any summary of his place in modern philosophy would be incomplete without at least a brief discussion of these ideas and how they fit together to form a distinctive and original world-view. What then is meant by the notion of the Absurd? Although that perception is certainly consistent with his formula. Instead, as he emphasizes and tries to make clear, the Absurd expresses a fundamental disharmony, a tragic incompatibility, in our existence. It arises from the human demand for clarity and transcendence on the one hand and a cosmos that offers nothing of the kind on the other. Such is our fate: we inhabit a world that is indifferent to our sufferings and deaf to our protests. Two of these he condemns as evasions, and the other he puts forward as a proper solution. The first choice is blunt and simple: physical suicide. If we decide that a life without some essential purpose or meaning is not worth living, we can simply choose to kill ourselves. Camus rejects this choice as cowardly. In his terms it is a repudiation or renunciation of life, not a true revolt. The second choice is the religious solution of positing a transcendent world of solace and meaning beyond the Absurd. In effect, instead of removing himself from the absurd confrontation of self and world like the physical suicide, the religious believer simply removes the offending world and replaces it, via a kind of metaphysical abracadabra, with a more agreeable alternative. Since the Absurd in his view is an unavoidable, indeed defining, characteristic of the human condition, the only proper response to it is full, unflinching, courageous acceptance. Doomed to eternal labor at his rock, fully conscious of the essential hopelessness of his plight, Sisyphus nevertheless pushes on. In doing so he becomes for Camus a superb icon of the spirit of revolt and of the human condition. To rise each day to fight a battle you know you cannot win, and to do this with wit, grace, compassion for others, and even a sense of mission, is to face the Absurd in a spirit of true heroism. Over the course of his career, Camus examines the Absurd from multiple perspectives and through the eyes of many different charactersвЂ”from the mad Caligula, who is obsessed with the problem, to the strangely aloof and yet simultaneously self-absorbed Meursault, who seems indifferent to it even as he exemplifies and is finally victimized by it. In The Myth of Sisyphus, Camus traces it in specific characters of legend and literature Don Juan, Ivan Karamazov and also in certain character types the Actor, the Conqueror , all of who may be understood as in some way a version or manifestation of Sisyphus, the archetypal absurd hero. For Kierkegaard, however, the Absurd describes not an essential and universal human condition, but the special condition and nature of religious faithвЂ”a paradoxical state in which matters of will and perception that are objectively impossible can nevertheless be ultimately true. Simply defined, it is the Sisyphean spirit of defiance in the face of the Absurd. More technically and less metaphorically, it is a spirit of opposition against any perceived unfairness, oppression, or indignity in the human condition. In fact Camus argues at considerable length to show that an act of conscientious revolt is ultimately far more than just an individual gesture or an act of solitary protest. Indeed for him it was more like a fundamental article of his humanist faith. In any case it represents one of the core principles of his ethics and is one of the tenets that sets his philosophy apart from existentialism. True revolt, then, is performed not just for the self but also in solidarity with and out of compassion for others. And for this reason, Camus is led to conclude that revolt too has its limits. If it begins with and necessarily involves a recognition of human community and a common human dignity, it cannot, without betraying its own true character, treat others as if they were lacking in that dignity or not a part of that community. Meursault, the laconic narrator of The Stranger , is the most obvious example. He seems to observe everything, even his own behavior, from an outside perspective. Like an anthropologist, he records his observations with clinical detachment at the same time that he is warily observed by the community around him. Camus came by this perspective naturally. This outside view, the perspective of the exile, became his characteristic stance as a writer. Throughout his writing career, Camus showed a deep interest in questions of guilt and innocence. Once again Meursault in The Stranger provides a striking example. Is he legally innocent of the murder he is charged with? Or is he technically guilty? On the one hand, there seems to have been no conscious intention behind his action. Indeed the killing takes place almost as if by accident, with Meursault in a kind of absent-minded daze, distracted by the sun. From this point of view, his crime seems surreal and his trial and subsequent conviction a travesty. The significantly named Jean-Baptiste Clamence a voice in the wilderness calling for clemency and forgiveness is tortured by guilt in the wake of a seemingly casual incident. While strolling home one drizzly November evening, he shows little concern and almost no emotional reaction at all to the suicidal plunge of a young woman into the Seine. But afterwards the incident begins to gnaw at him, and eventually he comes to view his inaction as typical of a long pattern of personal vanity and as a colossal failure of human sympathy on his part. Wracked by remorse and self-loathing, he gradually descends into a figurative hell. In the final sections of the novel, amid distinctly Christian imagery and symbolism, he declares his crucial insight that, despite our pretensions to righteousness, we are all guilty. Hence no human being has the right to pass final moral judgment on another. In a final twist, Clamence asserts that his acid self-portrait is also a mirror for his contemporaries. Hence his confession is also an accusationвЂ”not only of his nameless companion who serves as the mute auditor for his monologue but ultimately of the hypocrite lecteur as well. At heart a nature-worshipper, and by instinct a skeptic and non-believer, Camus nevertheless retained a lifelong interest and respect for Christian philosophy and literature. In particular, he seems to have recognized St. Augustine and Kierkegaard as intellectual kinsmen and writers with whom he shared a common passion for controversy, literary flourish, self-scrutiny, and self-dramatization. Christian images, symbols, and allusions abound in all his work probably more so than in the writing of any other avowed atheist in modern literature , and Christian themesвЂ”judgment, forgiveness, despair, sacrifice, passion, and so forthвЂ”permeate the novels. Meursault and Clamence, it is worth noting, are presented not just as sinners, devils, and outcasts, but in several instances explicitly, and not entirely ironically, as Christ figures. Meanwhile alongside and against this leitmotif of Christian images and themes, Camus sets the main components of his essentially pagan worldview. Like Nietzsche, he maintains a special admiration for Greek heroic values and pessimism and for classical virtues like courage and honor. What might be termed Romantic values also merit particular esteem within his philosophy: passion, absorption in pure being, an appreciation for and indeed a willingness to revel in raw sensory experience, the glory of the moment, the beauty of the world. Can an absurd world have intrinsic value? Is authentic pessimism compatible with the view that there is an essential dignity to human life? They are almost a hallmark of his philosophical style. Oracular and high-flown, they clearly have more rhetorical force than logical potency. Surprisingly, the sentiment here, a commonplace of the Enlightenment and of traditional liberalism, is much closer in spirit to the exuberant secular humanism of the Italian Renaissance than to the agnostic skepticism of contemporary post-modernism. A primary theme of early twentieth-century European literature and critical thought is the rise of modern mass civilization and its suffocating effects of alienation and dehumanization. This became a pervasive theme by the time Camus was establishing his literary reputation. Anxiety over the fate of Western culture, already intense, escalated to apocalyptic levels with the sudden emergence of fascism, totalitarianism, and new technologies of coercion and death. He responded to the occasion with typical force and eloquence. Even his concept of the Absurd becomes multiplied by a social and economic world in which meaningless routines and mind-numbing repetitions predominate. The drudgery of Sisyphus is mirrored and amplified in the assembly line, the business office, the government bureau, and especially in the penal colony and concentration camp. In line with this theme, the ever-ambiguous Meursault in The Stranger can be understood as both a depressing manifestation of the newly emerging mass personality that is, as a figure devoid of basic human feelings and passions and, conversely, as a lone hold-out, a last remaining specimen of the old RomanticismвЂ”and hence a figure who is viewed as both dangerous and alien by the robotic majority. Similarly, The Plague can be interpreted, on at least one level, as an allegory in which humanity must be preserved from the fatal pestilence of mass culture, which converts formerly free, autonomous, independent-minded human beings into a soulless new species. Clad in a gaudy military uniform bedecked with ribbons and decorations, the character Plague a satirical portrait of Generalissimo Francisco FrancoвЂ”or El Caudillo as he liked to style himself is closely attended by his personal Secretary and loyal assistant Death, depicted as a prim, officious female bureaucrat who also favors military garb and who carries an ever-present clipboard and notebook. So Plague is a fascist dictator, and Death a solicitous commissar. Together these figures represent a system of pervasive control and micro-management that threatens the future of mass society. In his reflections on this theme of post-industrial dehumanization, Camus differs from most other European writers and especially from those on the Left in viewing mass reform and revolutionary movements, including Marxism, as representing at least as great a threat to individual freedom as late-stage capitalism. Throughout his career he continued to cherish and defend old-fashioned virtues like personal courage and honor that other Left-wing intellectuals tended to view as reactionary or bourgeois. Suicide is the central subject of The Myth of Sisyphus and serves as a background theme in Caligula and The Fall. In Caligula the mad title character, in a fit of horror and revulsion at the meaninglessness of life, would rather dieвЂ”and bring the world down with himвЂ”than accept a cosmos that is indifferent to human fate or that will not submit to his individual will. Like Wittgenstein who had a family history of suicide and suffered from bouts of depression , Camus considered suicide the fundamental issue for moral philosophy. However, unlike other philosophers who have written on the subject from Cicero and Seneca to Montaigne and Schopenhauer , Camus seems uninterested in assessing the traditional motives and justifications for suicide for instance, to avoid a long, painful, and debilitating illness or as a response to personal tragedy or scandal. Indeed, he seems interested in the problem only to the extent that it represents one possible response to the Absurd. Executions by guillotine were a common public spectacle in Algeria during his lifetime, but he refused to attend them and recoiled bitterly at their very mention. Condemnation of capital punishment is both explicit and implicit in his writings. The grim rationality of this process of legalized murder contrasts markedly with the sudden, irrational, almost accidental nature of his actual crime. Similarly, in The Myth of Sisyphus , the would-be suicide is contrasted with his fatal opposite, the man condemned to death, and we are continually reminded that a sentence of death is our common fate in an absurd universe. Like Victor Hugo, his great predecessor on this issue, he views the death penalty as an egregious barbarismвЂ”an act of blood riot and vengeance covered over with a thin veneer of law and civility to make it acceptable to modern sensibilities. That it is also an act of vengeance aimed primarily at the poor and oppressed, and that it is given religious sanction, makes it even more hideous and indefensible in his view. For there to be an equivalency, the death penalty would have to punish a criminal who had warned his victim of the date on which he would inflict a horrible death on him and who, from that moment onward, had confined him at his mercy for months. Such a monster is not to be encountered in private life. Camus concludes his essay by arguing that, at the very least, France should abolish the savage spectacle of the guillotine and replace it with a more humane procedure such as lethal injection. Camus is often classified as an existentialist writer, and it is easy to see why. Affinities with Kierkegaard and Sartre are patent. He shares with these philosophers and with the other major writers in the existentialist tradition, from Augustine and Pascal to Dostoyevsky and Nietzsche an habitual and intense interest in the active human psyche, in the life of conscience or spirit as it is actually experienced and lived. Like these writers, he aims at nothing less than a thorough, candid exegesis of the human condition, and like them he exhibits not just a philosophical attraction but also a personal commitment to such values as individualism, free choice, inner strength, authenticity, personal responsibility, and self-determination. However, one troublesome fact remains: throughout his career Camus repeatedly denied that he was an existentialist. Was this an accurate and honest self-assessment? In their view, Camus qualifies as, at minimum, a closet existentialist, and in certain respects e. On the other hand, besides his personal rejection of the label, there appear to be solid reasons for challenging the claim that Camus is an existentialist. Of course there is no rule that says an existentialist must be a metaphysician. Another point of divergence is that Camus seems to have regarded existentialism as a complete and systematic world-view, that is, a fully articulated doctrine. In his view, to be a true existentialist one had to commit to the entire doctrine and not merely to bits and pieces of it , and this was apparently something he was unwilling to do. A further point of separation, and possibly a decisive one, is that Camus actively challenged and set himself apart from the existentialist motto that being precedes essence. Ultimately, against Sartre in particular and existentialists in general, he clings to his instinctive belief in a common human nature. In his view human existence necessarily includes an essential core element of dignity and value, and in this respect he seems surprisingly closer to the humanist tradition from Aristotle to Kant than to the modern tradition of skepticism and relativism from Nietzsche to Derrida the latter his fellow-countryman and, at least in his commitment to human rights and opposition to the death penalty, his spiritual successor and descendant. In short, he bequeathed not just his words but also his actions. The result is something like a cross between Hemingway a Camus favorite and Melville another favorite or between Diderot and Hugo. For the most part when we read Camus we encounter the plain syntax, simple vocabulary, and biting aphorism typical of modern theatre or noir detective fiction. However, this base style frequently becomes a counterpoint or springboard for extended musings and lavish descriptions almost in the manner of Proust. Perhaps the greatest inspiration and example that Camus provides for contemporary readers is the lesson that it is still possible for a serious thinker to face the modern world with a full understanding of its contradictions, injustices, brutal flaws, and absurdities with hardly a grain of hope, yet utterly without cynicism. To read Camus is to find words like justice, freedom, humanity, and dignity used plainly and openly, without apology or embarrassment, and without the pained or derisive facial expressions or invisible quotation marks that almost automatically accompany those terms in public discourse today. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Camus, Philosophical Literature, and the Novel of Ideas. Essays, Letters, Prose Collections, Articles, and Reviews. History and Mass Culture. References and Further Reading. Works by Albert Camus. Critical and Biographical Studies. Yet, as he indicated in his acceptance speech at Stockholm, he considered his own career as still in mid-flight, with much yet to accomplish and even greater writing challenges ahead:. Every person, and assuredly every artist, wants to be recognized. To re-emphasize a point made earlier, Camus considered himself first and foremost a writer un ecrivain. So here we are: poor creatures desperately seeking hope and meaning in a hopeless, meaningless world. To all who argue that murder must be punished in kind, Camus replies:. The Myth of Sisyphus and other Essays. Exile and the Kingdom. Lyrical and Critical Essays. A selection of critical writings, including essays on Melville, Faulkner, and Sartre, plus all the early essays from Betwixt and Between and Nuptials. Resistance, Rebellion, and Death. A collection of essays on a wide variety of political topics ranging from the death penalty to the Cold War. Caligula and Three Other Plays. A posthumous novel, partly autobiographical. A collection of articles and editorials that Camus wrote during and after WW II for the French Resistance journal Combat. Camus: A Collection of Critical Essays. Albert Camus and the Literature of Revolt. The Novelist as Philosopher. Albert Camus: From the Absurd to Revolt. The Cambridge Companion to Camus. Religion from Tolstoy to Camus. Albert Camus: A Biography. Albert Camus: A Life. New York: Alfred A. An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.
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